We have included a spectrum of reports in our list. The type of report is indicated at the end of each study:

DISC = discussion
META = meta analysis
MAR = marginal value (to save researchers the trouble of hunting these down)
MAR METHODS = a formal research study with seriously flawed methodology
OBS = Observational report (series of cases)
P = popular article
Q = qualitative study
RES = research
SUR = survey


Gagne, D/Toye, R.C. The effects of therapeutic touch and relaxation therapy in reducing anxiety.  Archives of Psychiatric Nursing 1994, 8(3), 184-189. RES

Gangloff, J. The science and controversy behind touch therapies. Cure 2005, 4(1), 9-15. MAR

Garrard, Clare T. The effect of Therapeutic Touch on stress reduction and immune function in persons with AIDS (Immune Deficiency), (Doctoral dissertation) Birmingham: University of Alabama 1996. RES

Geddes, N. The Experience of Personal Transformation in Healing Touch Practitioners: A Heuristic Study, Healing Touch Newsletter, 1999, 9(3), 5. (Data-based) . Q
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
A heuristic inquiry was conducted with eight certified Healing Touch practitioners to explore the experience of personal transformation. The experience was described as a journey, not a destination and is described as a process of making changes in all facets of life based on a perception of the self as a unitary, spiritual, self-caring and self-nurturing individual. The participants in the process of personal transformation were increasingly less dependent on the approval of others. Three common structural themes were: (1) a perceived immediate “rightness” of the experience of Healing Touch despite mixed entree; (2) unanticipated personal implications and (3) a new lens through which to view one’s life and circumstances.

Gehlhaart, C/ Dail, P. Effectiveness of Healing Touch and Therapeutic Touch on elderly residents of long-term care facilities on reducing pain and anxiety levels,Healing Touch Newsletter, 2000, 0(3), 8. (Data-based). RES
Effects of Healing Touch (HT) and Therapeutic Touch (TT) on pain, anxiety, pulse and respiration levels were studied for in elderly people in a long-term care setting over an eight month period
“The treatment group had 19 subjects with a median age of 81.9 years (SD=11.35). The control group included four subjects… The experimental group each received one treatment per week consisting of a 20-30 minute session of HT/TT techniques. Pre and post assessment of pain, emotional feelings to provide an anxiety rating (nervous, tense, happy, worried), pulse and respiration were conducted. The control group received a weekly assessment using the same tools for self-rating of pain and emotional scoring, but no treatment.
Overall, HT reduced pain by 50% (p = .00). The reduction in pain remained significant when controlling for number of sessions received, initial belief in the effectiveness of HT and experience of acute or chronic pain. Effect on mood, pulse and respirations was not clinically significant. HT practitioners with more experience elicited the best results. The finding that the practitioner did affect the pain results may be due to skill level of the practitioner or due to social interaction/therapeutic effect of the individual. It was also interesting to note that while the majority of participants, on initial assessment, felt somewhat doubtful that the treatment might help them, the overwhelming majority did indeed achieve significant effect.”

Gerard, Stan/ Smith, Blair H/ Simpson, Julie A. A randomized controlled trial of spiritual healing in restricted neck movement, The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 2003, 9(4), 467-477. RES
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical effectiveness of visiting a spiritual healer in restricted neck movement. 
DESIGN: Pragmatic randomized controlled trial. 
SETTINGLLOCATION: Spiritual-healing clinic in Aberdeen, Scotland. 
SUBJECTS: Sixty-eight (68) volunteers over the age of 18 years with restricted neck movement not currently receiving spiritual healing. 
INTERVENTION: Three weekly sessions of spiritual healing treatment lasting approximately 30 minutes each. Control group received normal care (no spiritual healing). 
OUTCOME MEASURES: Range of neck movement in three directions. Visual analog scales of pain and overall well-being, Short Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey general health questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Chronic Pain Grade were also measured. 
RESULTS: After treatment, the change from baseline in rotation and flexion-extension was significantly greater in the treatment group compared to the control group (mean standard deviation [SD]: 26.3 degrees (21.0 degrees) versus 2.1 degrees (15.1 degrees), p < 0.001 and 20.7 degrees (23.0 degrees) versus -0.03 degrees (15.2 degrees), p < 0.001, respectively). Subjects from the treatment group were also observed to have reduced their pain severity scores after 3 weeks of treatment compared to those of the control group (median change from baseline [range], - 2.25 [-8, 2] versus 0 (-6, 4), P = 0.03). For SF-36, the treatment group had significantly improved their scores more than the control group for physical function and energy and vitality. There was a shift in the treatment group toward milder chronic pain grades but this was not significant. There were no significant differences between treatment and control groups in the other outcome measures. 
CONCLUSION: This study tentatively supports the effectiveness of visiting a spiritual healer in restricted neck movement. However, larger studies over longer periods, with placebo interventions, are required for corroboration and to gauge the scale of treatment effect.
Gerard, Stan. Does spiritual healing help patients with restricted neck movement? Sacred Space, 2001, 2(2), 26-30,
ABSTRACT: The patient’s neck movement was measured in four directions before and after intervention of spiritual healing. Fifty-nine out of sixty patients attending the author showed increased neck movement of up to 400 per cent (110 to 550) providing statistically significant results (p < 0.01) in one visit, with improved function and reported reduction of pain…

Giasson, M/ Bouchard, L. Effect of Therapeutic Touch on the well-being of persons with terminal cancer, Journal of Holistic Nursing, 1998, 16, 383-398. RES 
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of three Therapeutic Touch treatments on the well-being of 20 persons with terminal cancer in palliative care.  The results support the hypothesis that three noncontact therapeutic touch treatments increasesensation of well-being in persons with terminal cancer.

Gilbert, N/ Goldberg, M. Use of Healing Touch Energy Therapy in Improving the Quality of Life Among the Dying. Paper presented at the 6th Annual Healing Touch International Conference, Denver, Colorado, 2002. (Data-based). Q
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
Individuals who were involved with the Center for Hospice and Palliative Care of St Joseph, Marshall, and Elkhart counties in Indiana were participants in this study. Healing Touch was done in their homes. Specific outcomes monitored during the study were 1) quality of life, 2) physical symptoms, and 3) spiritual meaning. The study enrolled 55 subjects randomized to a Healing Touch group or standard care group. The results showed improvement in the Healing Touch group with decrease in physical symptoms and less change in physical functioning over time as compared to worsening in the control group. Those in the Healing Touch group showed no change in interpersonal relationships whereas the standard group showed slightly more difficulty. The transcendent and well being domains were more improved in the standard group. The Healing Touch group reported increased relaxation, increased relief of pain, spiritual benefit, increased calmness and improved breathing.

Goodrich, Joyce, Healing and meditation: healing as a unitive experience. The LeShan work, American Society for Psychical Research Newsletter 1993, 18(2), 5. Awareness of healees that healing is being sent from a distance. RES

Gordon, A/ Merenstein, J.H/D'Amico, F/Hudgens, D.  The effects of therapeutic touch on patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Journal of Family Practice 1998, 47(4), 271-277. RES

Grad, Bernard, A telekinetic effect on plant growth. I, International Journal of Parapsychology 1963, 5(2), 117-134. RES

Grad, Bernard, A telekinetic effect on plant growth II. experiments involving treatment of saline in stoppered bottles, International Journal of Parapsychology1964(a), 6, 473-498. RES

Grad, Bernard, A telekinetic effect on plant growth III. Stimulating and inhibiting effects, Research Brief Presented to the Seventh Annual Convention of the Parapsychological Association, Oxford University, Oxford, England Sep 1964(b). RES

Grad, Bernard. Some biological effects of laying-on of hands: a review of experiments with animals and plants, Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 1965(a), 59, 95-127 (Also reproduced In: 
Schmeidler, Gertrude (Ed.) Parapsychology: Its Relation to Physics, Biology, Psychology and Psychiatry, Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow 1976). RES

Grad, Bernard, PK effects of fermentation of yeast, Proceedings of the Parapsychological Association 1965(b), 2, 15-16. RES

Grad, Bernard, The ‘laying on of hands:’ implications for psychotherapy, gentling and the placebo effect, Journal of the Society for Psychical Research 1967, 61(4), 286-305 (Also Reviewed In: Schmeidler, Gertrude (Ed.) Parapsychology: Its Relation to Physics, Biology, Psychology and Psychiatry, Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow 1976). RES

Grad, B./ Cadoret, R./ Paul, G. I. The influence of an unorthodox, method of treatment on wound healing in mice, International Journal of Parapsychology1961, 3, 5-24. RES

Graney, M. J/Engle, V. F/Winstead-Fry, P. Critique of review of Therapeutic Touch.”Evidence-based practice and reviews of therapeutic touch”. Journal of Nursing Scholarship 2001, 33(1), 6-7.  DISC

Green, C.A. A reflection of a Therapeutic Touch experience: Case study 1,Complementary Therapy Nurse Midwifery, 1996, 2, 122-125. CASE
ABSTRACT:  The purpose of this case study was to explore the experiences of giving and receiving Therapeutic Touch.  Attempts were made to capture the subjective qualities of the experience by providing a description of the Therapeutic Touch interaction that took place.  The central theme of this study is the process of reflection-in-action.

Green, C.A. Reflection of a Therapeutic Touch experience: Case study 2,Complementary Therapy Nurse Midwifery, 1998,4, 17-21. CASE
ABSTRACT:  The purpose of this case study was to explore the experience of both giving and receiving Therapeutic Touch.  A subjective account of the Therapeutic Touch experience is given in an attempt to throw light on its unique creative and therapeutic qualities.  In most instances it was shown that the experience of both giving and receiving Therapeutic Touch was a parallel experience.  This case study explores the effects of Therapeutic Touch on a client experiencing pain and associated anxiety Green, M. Joanne. Registered nurses’ knowledge and practice of therapeutic touch. MS. dissertation, Gonzaga University, Washington 1997. SURV
Therapeutic Touch, manipulation of human energy fields to promote healing, is part of the New World holistic view of nursing. This descriptive study, using a mailed questionnaire, surveyed 116 registered nurses in a Western State to determine their knowledge and practice patterns related to this modality, including factors affecting their practice. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. 
While only a tenth of the respondents reported that they use Therapeutic Touch in their practices, two-thirds wanted to know more about the technique. Lack of knowledge and/or confidence were the major barriers to use of Therapeutic Touch. A majority believed that Therapeutic Touch is a nursing intervention. Those who use Therapeutic Touch use it for a variety of purposes, e.g., treatment of pain or nausea, relaxation, anxiety reduction. The study indicates a need among nurses and other health care professionals for more education as well as additional research on Therapeutic Touch.

Green, William Michael, The Therapeutic Effects of Distant Intercessory Prayer and Patients’ Enhanced Positive Expectations on Recovery Rates and Anxiety Levels of Hospitalized Neurosurgical Pituitary Patients: A Double Blind Study (Doctoral dissertation), San Francisco: California Institute of Integral Studies 1993. RES

Greyson, Bruce, Distance healing of patients with major depression, Journal of Scientific Exploration 1996, 10(4), 1-18. RES

Grytting, Catherine Irene Ed.D., *Spiritual Healing: Generating Grounded Theory From a Survey of Healers, Seattle University 1998. Q

Guerrerio, J/ Slater, V/ Cook, C. The effect of Healing Touch on radiation-induced fatigue in women receiving radiation therapy for gynecological or breast cancer.Healing Touch Newsletter, 2001, 01(3), 5. [Data-based]. RES
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
Radiation therapy can produce fatigue in 65-100% of patients treated for cancers. This may become permanent.
“A randomized clinical trial was conducted with a sample of 62 women receiving radiation treatment for gynecological and breast cancer at Barnes-Jewish Hospital in St. Louis, Missouri… The treatment group received a total of six healing touch treatments… whereas the control group received six mock treatments... 
The primary outcome variable, fatigue, was measured using a self-administered Visual Analog Scale (VAS) that was administered immediately before and after each HT/mock treatment… Comparisons of mean VAS scores before and after the six treatment sessions show proportionately larger reductions in fatigue in the HT group than the control group.
… the HT group demonstrated more pronounced improvements in their levels of depression, anxiety and anger compared to the control group.  The statistical significance of these findings will be determined in later analyses when medical record abstraction of radiation doses, medications and laboratory work is completed.

Guerrero, M.S. The effects of Therapeutic Touch on state-trait anxiety level of oncology patients (Master’s thesis) Galveston: University of Texas 1985.

Stress Symptoms in Abused Women. Paper presented at the 8th Nursing Research Pan American Colloquium, Mexico City, 2002. (Data-based). MAR

Guevara, E/Silva, C/Menidas, N. The Effects of Healing Touch Therapy on PTSD Symptoms on Domestic Violence Abused Mexican Women. MAR
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
This multi-disciplinary project included training and certification of personnel in charge of the healing intervention and identification of abused women through the Abused Women Registry in the Metropolitan Area of Monterrey. The second phase included the assessment of selected abused women. The third phase included the administration of two Healing Touch techniques to the treatment group. The fourth phase includes assessment of treatment outcomes (assessment of client adherence to treatment and severity of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder symptoms after treatment, which occurred after 10 session of treatment. Results support Healing Touch as an effective complementary therapy for abused women. Clinic personnel, participants, and practitioners were receptive to the modality.


Hagemaster J. Use of therapeutic touch in treatment of drug addictions, Holist Nurs Pract., 2000, 14(3), 14-20. RES MAR
“The purpose of this pilot study is to examine the efficacy of Therapeutic Touch (TT) as a form of treatment intervention with persons who abuse alcohol and/or other drugs. A between-subjects design compared treatment outcomes of three groups of alcohol and other drug abusers over five months. The Addiction Severity Index (ASI), Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), Beck Depression Inventory (BI), and Personal Experiences: Therapeutic Touch and Frequency of Alcohol/Drug Use questionnaires were administered to the group receiving TT (Group A) and both control groups (Mimic TT Group B and No Intervention Group C) at various points in the study. Preliminary findings indicate that the use of TT could be effective in prolonging periods of abstinence for alcohol and other drug abusers.”

Haigler, S. L. The persuasive implications of Therapeutic Touch in doctor-patient relationships (Gender), University of Washington 1996.

Hale, E. H. A study of the relationship between Therapeutic Touch and the anxiety levels of hospitalized adults (Doctoral dissertation), College of Nursing, Texas Woman’s University 1986. RES

Hallett A. Narratives of therapeutic touch, Nurs Stand., 2004, 19(1),33-7. CASE MAR
This article aims to increase the understanding of therapeutic touch (TT) and its role in supporting patients with cancer through the different stages of illness. The article includes a number of narratives, collected during an audit and written by patients, to illustrate the use of TT in helping them to cope with the emotional experiences associated with diagnosis and subsequent treatment.

Hamilton, W.G. Therapeutic touch: Promoting and assessing conceptual change among health care professionals.  East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University 1988.

Hanley, M. A. Therapeutic Touch with preterm infants: Composing a treatment. (Doctoral dissertation). The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Science: Galveston, TX 2004. Q
The aim of this research was to explore the nature of Therapeutic Touch (TT) with preterm infants as described by Therapeutic Touch Practitioners and develop a TT treatment for preterm infants. The majority of TT literature for 30 years has focused on TT with adults. Little is known about the use of TT with preterm infants. 
Narrative inquiry and descriptive methods were used to discover knowledge about the use of TT with preterm infants. Therapeutic Touch practitioners, with varying levels of experience using TT with preterm infants provided multiple, in-depth narratives regarding their use of TT. Narrative analysis revealed seven essential elements of Therapeutic Touch, four ethical dimensions of practice, and three global themes: Therapeutic Touch as a relational narrative, Therapeutic Touch as improvisation, and the relational ethics of Therapeutic Touch. Study findings support future research to evaluate TT treatments with preterm infants as a science based practice.

Haraldsson, E./ Thorsteinsson, T. Psychokinetic effects on yeast: an exploratory experiment, In: W.C. Roll/ R.L. Morris,/ J.D. Morris, (Eds.), Research in Parapsychology, 1972, Metuchen, NJ Scarecrow 1973, 20-21. RES

Haraldsson, Erlendur and Olafsson, Orn, A survey of psychic healing in Iceland, Christian Parapsychologist 1980, 3(8), 276-279. SURV

Harkness, Elaine F/ Abbot, Neil C/ Ernst, Edzard. A Randomized Trial of Distant Healing for Skin Warts, The American Journal of Medicine, 2000, 108(6), 448-452. RES
PURPOSE; Distant healing, a treatment that is transmitted by a healer to a patient at another location, widely used, although good scientific evidence of its efficacy is sparse. This trial was aimed at assessing the efficacy of one form of distant healing on common skin warts.
Subjects and Methods: A total of 84-patients with warts were randomly assigned either to a group that received 6 weeks of distant healing by one of 10 experienced healers or to a control group that received a similar preliminary assessment but no distant healing, The primary outcomes were the number of warts and their mean size at the end of the treatment period. Secondary outcomes were the change in Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and patients’ subjective experiences. Both the patients and evaluator were blinded to group assignment. 
RESULTS: The baseline characteristics of the patients were similar in the distant healing (n=41) and control groups (n=43). The mean number and size of warts per person did not change significantly during the study. The number of warts increased by 0.2 in the healing group and decreased by 1.1 in the control group (difference [healing to control] = -1.3; 95% confidence interval = 1.0 to 3.6, P = 0.25). Six patients in the distant healing group and 8 in the control group reported a subjective improvement (P = 0.63). There were no significant between-group differences in the depression and anxiety scores.
CONCLUSION: Distant healing from experiences healers had no effect on the number or size of patients’ warts. 
COMMENTS OF STUDIES COMPILER: Warts are a poor choice for study of healing effects. They are notoriously subject to improvement by suggestions of almost any sort. It is actually odd that there were no significant effects of suggestion on the warts in this study.

Harris, Darryl James, The Mystery and meaning of Reiki, Batchelor of Health Science Thesis, University of Western Sydney Nepean (School of health & Nursing) 1998. Q

Harris, William S et al, A randomized, controlled trial of the effects of remote, intercessory prayer on outcomes in patients admitted to the coronary care unit,Archives of Internal Medicine 1999, 159(19), 2273-2278. RES

Harrison, Gloria Marie. Long-Distance Intercessory Prayer: Personality Factors of the Prayee and their Effect on College Success of the Prayee, PSY.D., Spalding University, 1999. QAL
The goal of this dissertation is to build on the existing, limited knowledge regarding the relationship between prayer and psychological healing. As previous research has shown a correlation between personality variables and extrasensory perception, this study was designed to explore the relationship between personality variables and prayer. This was accomplished by examining the relationship between distant intercessory prayer and personality of both prayors and prayees and its effect on the well-being of college students (prayees) as measured by change in mean Grade Point Average over nine months. Personality was classified using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. In this double-blind study, students were randomly assigned to prayed-for and control groups Participants in the prayed-for-group, identified by first name and last initial, were randomly assigned to one of fifty prayors who had no direct contact with them. No specific guidelines were given about how to pray. A t-test for equality of means was used to compare the personality types of the prayors and prayees and the interaction effects, with no significant change in mean GPA found. An ANOVA was used to compare the temperament dimensions of the prayors and prayees and a Table of Mean Differences was used to explore the interaction effects, with no significant change in mean GPA found. The strongest effect, which approached significance, was noted between judging and perceiving prayors and perceiving prayees. Rational prayors appeared to do better than other temperament classifications. Possible limitations of this study were: small sample size especially in many of the sub-groups; contamination through lack of standardization in prayer method and “dosage;” and use of a possible invalid measure of personality (MBTI) because types are not unique or fixed on a continuum. Personality may not correlate with effectiveness of intercessory prayer for over nine months, implying developmental change; therefore, the MBTI as a measure of personality type would not account for this. The challenge for future researchers would be to design a more effective means of testing this dynamic.

Harvey, David, The Power to Heal: An Investigation of Healing and the Healing Experience, Wellingborough, England: Aquarian 1983. SURV

Hayward, Linda Joanne Ph.D., The Experience of Healing Transformation: An Heuristic Investigation (Spiritual Healing), The Union Institute 1993. Q

Heidt, P.  The effects of Therapeutic Touch on the A-state anxiety of hospitalized patients.  Nursing Research 1981, 30(1), 32-27. RES

Heidt, P.R. Openness: a qualitative analysis of nurses' and patients' experiences of Therapeutic Touch. Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship 1990, 22(3), 180-186. Q

Heidt, P.R. Helping patients to rest: clinical studies in therapeutic touch. Holistic Nursing Practice 1991, 5, 57-66. DISC

Heidt, Patricia, An Investigation of the Effect of Therapeutic Touch on the Anxiety of Hospitalized Patients (Doctoral dissertation) New York University 1979. RES

Herron-Marx, Sandy;  Price-Knol, Femke;  Burden, Barbara;  Hicks, Carolyn. A systematic review of the use of Reiki in health care, Alternative & Complementary Therapies. 2008, 14(1), 37-42.  SURV

Herdtner, S. L. The experience of knowing self and others in Therapeutic Touch (Holistic Health, Unitary Knowing), New York University 1999. Q
A qualitative method was used to research the experience of knowing self and others in Therapeutic Touch. Three nurses who were experienced Therapeutic Touch practitioners and three patients participated in the study and formed three nurse and patient dyads. Each dyad was observed giving and receiving Therapeutic Touch on three different occasions. Following each treatment the patients and nurses participated in tape recorded interviews. The observational and interview data were transcribed and analyzed. 
The following themes emerged from the data: I know what needs my attention; I know I will be touched in the right places; I know we move and flow rhythmically; I know from a different awareness. A unique theme emerged from the data for each of the dyads and included: I know we are free to move; I know we are more than physical beings; and I know we are attuning to the whole. This research described both the process of knowing self and others in Therapeutic Touch and the characteristics of that knowing. The knowing that occurred for the participants in this study was complex and diverse, was not bounded by three dimensional time and space, and supported the continuous mutual process of the nurse and patient in Therapeutic Touch. In this study the essence of knowing in Therapeutic Touch was the wisdom of the whole and that was characterized by perceptual knowing, unitary knowing, and pandimensional knowing.

Hinze, M.L.M. The effects of therapeutic touch and acupressure on experimentally-induced pain.  Austin, TX: The University of Texas 1988. RES? Q?

Hoffmeyer, C. A. A single case study experimental design exploring the effect of Therapeutic Touch on women with migraine headaches (Doctoral dissertation), University of Colorado, Health Science’s Centre: Denver, CO 2000. CASE
This single case study experimental design explored the effect of Therapeutic Touch (TT) on the frequency, duration, and intensity of migraine headaches; migraine medication use; relaxation levels; perceptions of quality of life; and feelings of hope in women with migraine headaches. The study also examined the relationship of locus of control with perceptions of treatment usefulness. 
To date, research studies on migraine headaches have focused primarily on the occurrence of physical symptoms and conventional treatment plans. Providing clients with non-pharmacologic approaches to this condition has received less attention and would broaden clients' options for dealing with this disabling condition. Previous research has demonstrated the effectiveness of TT in relieving pain due to tension headaches but there are no studies on relieving pain related to migraine headaches. 
This twelve-week repeated measures study consisted of three, four-week phases, i.e., baseline, treatment, and follow-up. Nine females who experienced migraine headaches at least twice monthly and took medication to treat migraine symptoms but not to prevent the migraines were included in the study. Participants' ages ranged from 26 to 50, with a median of 41 years. 
Visual inspection of graphed dependent variable data revealed a trend to decreased migraine frequency, duration, intensity and medication consumption. Statistical analysis using repeated measures analysis of variance identified a significant reduction in migraine headache frequency (p = .037). Paired t-tests identified a significant increase in relaxation levels following the TT sessions (p = .018 to.001). Other findings were non-significant. 
The findings of this study are exploratory in nature. Given the small sample size, these results should not be generalized beyond the sample. The findings, however, suggest the potential benefit of TT for women with migraine headaches. Participants in this study experienced the beneficial effects of decreased migraine frequency and increased relaxation levels in response to the TT intervention, with no documented adverse effects. These findings warrant further exploration of the effect of TT on more diverse migraine headache populations and with a larger sample. 

Hollbrook, J. Essence of Healing (Touch). Unpublished master’s thesis. University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 1998. (Data-based). Q
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
The experience of Healing Touch was explored using a phenomenological approach. After analysis of the data from taped interviews the essential structure of the experience of healing was determined. Healing is described as a process, requiring active participation and effort through which a person becomes more aware with a higher consciousness, a sense of self worth and a feeling of serenity and joy. From this process and the many suggested paths, a prescription for healing emerged.
Homan, Terry Ann. Psychic alternative healing techniques and teaching in Anchorage, Alaska today. MA, dissertation, University of Alaska Anchorage 1998.  MAR

Hughes, Pamela Potter/ Meize-Grochowski, Robin/ Neighbor, Catherine/ Harris, Duncan, Therapeutic Touch with adolescent psychiatric patients, Journal of Holistic Nursing 1996, 14(1), 6-23. Q

Hunt, Valerie. A Study of Structural integration from Neuromuscular Energy Field, and Emotional Approaches, Unpublished project report 1977. OBS



Benor, Daniel J. Intuitive diagnosis, Subtle Energies 1992, 3(2), 37-59.

Imber, Jeffrey Alan Ph.D., The Experience of Psychospiritual Transformation: A Heuristic Investigation, The Union Institute 1994. Q

Ireland M/ Olson M. Massage therapy and therapeutic touch in children: state of the science, Alternative Ther Health Med, 2000, (5),54-63. MAR
OBJECTIVE: To review and critique the research on the effect of massage therapy and therapeutic touch in children, and to describe clinical implications and make suggestions for future study. DATA SOURCES: Studies were obtained through online computer searches of CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsychInfo, and SocioFile. Key words used were tactile, kinesthetic, massage therapy, touch, therapeutic touch, infants, and children. STUDY SELECTION, DATA EXTRACTION, AND SYNTHESIS: Fourteen massage therapy studies were selected because they met the following 3 criteria: investigated massage therapy in children; were published in refereed nursing, allied health, or infant and child development journals between 1969 and 1999; and were quantitative in nature. Studies were divided according to developmental age for analysis: neonates, preschool, and older children. Five therapeutic touch studies, 3 quantitative and 2 qualitative, were selected because they were the only empirical reports about the effect of therapeutic touch in children to date. In addition to critiques, the therapeutic touch studies were examined for the following 10 characteristics: study purpose/hypotheses, background/literature review, sample selection method, study design/random assignment, independent variable/length of treatment/control and confounders, dependent variables/measurements, outcomes, study limitations, and implications for future research. CONCLUSIONS: More research exists to support the use of massage therapy than therapeutic touch in children. A set of common findings across 2 decades of study suggests that massage therapy may be useful in the care of infants and children. Because massage therapy and therapeutic touch seem to elicit similar parasympathetic effects, therapeutic touch may be useful. There is insufficient evidence, however, to recommend its use in children without qualifications.

Ireland, Mary. Therapeutic Touch with HIV-Infected Children: A Pilot Study,Journal of the Association of Nurses in Aids Care, 1998, 9(4), 68-77. RES
In this pilot study, 20 HIV-infected children, 6 to 12 years of age, were randomly assigned into therapeutic touch (TT) and Mimic TT groups. The effectiveness of TT in reducing anxiety was evaluated. The self-report measure, the A-State Anxiety subscale of the Speilberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory ForChildren, was administered before and immediately after interventions. As predicted, the TT Intervention resulted in lower overall mean anxiety scores, whereas the mimic TT did not. These findings provide preliminary support for the use of TT in reducing the state anxiety of children with HIV infection. 
Conclusions: TT was effective in lowering anxiety in HIV infected children, 6 to 12 years of age.

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