We have included a spectrum of reports in our list. The type of report is indicated at the end of each study:

DISC = discussion
META = meta analysis
MAR = marginal value (to save researchers the trouble of hunting these down)
MAR METHODS = a formal research study with seriously flawed methodology
OBS = Observational report (series of cases)
P = popular article
Q = qualitative study
RES = research
SUR = survey


Parkes, B. S. Therapeutic Touch as an intervention to reduce anxiety in elderly hospitalized patients (Doctoral dissertation) Austin: University of Texas 1985. RES

Pattison, E. Mansell, et al. Faith healing, Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases1973, 156, 397-409. Q

Peck, S/ Wypyzynski, J/ Hauser, D. A descriptive study of outcomes with the use of Healing Touch in elders and adults with chronic illness, Manuscript submitted for publication, 2003. (Data based). Q
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
The purpose of the study was to examine costs of Healing Touch compared to efficacy of treatment, and to determine a protocol by which to prescribe the number and frequency of treatments at a home care/case management agency. A purposive sample of 14 patients who received Healing Touch and their assigned staff nurses were invited to participate in an interview regarding their experience with and perceived benefits from Healing Touch. Patients reported improvement in pain and functional ability. Only a few patients noted problems with sleep or emotional well-being before treatments, but twice the number noted improvement after treatments. Some patients experienced quite severe exacerbations of pain, decreased functional ability, disturbed sleep, emotional stress and other physiologic effects after Healing Touch was abruptly withdrawn by the agency. Examination of costs for complementary therapies revealed a monthly expenditure of $3000 to $5000 total for the 14 participating patients ($215-440 per person).

Peck, S.D. The efficacy of Therapeutic Touch for improving functional ability in elders with degenerative arthritis.  Nursing Science Quarterly 1998, 11, 123-132. RES

Peck, S.D.E. The effectiveness of Therapeutic Touch for decreasing pain in elders with degenerative arthritis.  Journal of Holistic Nursing 1997, 15(2), 176-198. RES

Peters, P.J. The lifestyle changes of selected Therapeutic Touch practitioners: an oral history.  Walden University 1992. Q

Philcox, Paul, RN/ Rawlins, Lainie, EN/ Rodgers, Lynne, EN. Therapeutic touch and its effect on phantom limb and stump pain, Cooperative Connection, 24(3), 2003, p. 10-11 RES
This single blind randomized controlled clinical trial studied 9 people, comparing TT, mock TT and no TT. The analysis of the pain scores showed “The improvement in values from immediately before to immediately after treatment in the TT group compared very favorably with the other two groups.  The TT group a 29% improvement and the control group a 21% improvement, the analysis was highly significant a p = 0.00011.
    “Comparative results in the three groups from immediate before to one hour after treatment showed the TT group at 61% improvement, the Mimic TT group at 29% and the control group at 41%.  These results are not as dramatic as the immediately after treatment, but are still encouraging, although not reaching significance at p = 0.09.”

Philpy, Sylvia/ Hutchinson Cynthia Poznanski. The HEALTH Tool (Healing Energy and Life Through Holism) ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
The goal of this project was to develop a tool that would be totally encompassing in reflecting the Healing Touch treatment process. This included who the practitioner is, who the patient is, what techniques are used and in what order, and what the environment is like. A main goal in the development of the HEALTH tool was to determine the meaning (interpretation) of many different aspects of a person’s life and lifestyle. The HEALTH tool is designed to obtain a thorough, holistic history from a client; determine the meaning the client holds for each aspect of that history; document and assess the outcome of all energetic healing treatments done; and determine the concerns, plans, and goals for care on the part of the client, as well as the practitioner.
Pleass, C. M./ Dey, Dean, Conditions that appear to favor extrasensory interactions between homo sapiens and microbes, Journal of Scientific Exploration 1990, 4(2) 213-231. RES

Polk, S.H. Client's Perceptions of Experiences Following the Intervention Modality of Therapeutic Touch (Master's thesis) Tempe: Arizona State University 1985. Q

Pomerhn, A. The effect of Therapeutic Touch on nursing students' perceptions of stress during clinical experience.  Masters Abstracts International 1987, 25(4), 362. Q?

Post-White, J/ Kinney, ME/ Savik, K/ Gau, JB/ Wilcox, C/ Lerner, I. Therapeutic massage and Healing Touch improve symptoms in cancer, Integrative Cancer Therapies 2003, 2(4), 332-344. (Data based/Peer reviewed). RES
ABSTRACT: Complementary therapies are increasingly used to reduce side effects of cancer treatment, without evidence for their effectiveness. In a randomized, prospective, 2-period, crossover intervention study, the authors tested the effects of therapeutic massage (MT) and healing touch (HT), in comparison to presence alone or standard care, in inducing relaxation and reducing symptoms in 230 subjects. MT and HT lowered blood pressure, respiratory rate (RR), and heart rate (HR). MT lowered anxiety and HT lowered fatigue, and both lowered total mood disturbance. Pain ratings were lower after MT and HT, with 4-week nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use less during MT. There were no effects on nausea. Presence reduced RR and HR but did not differ from standard care on any measure of pain, nausea, mood states, anxiety, or fatigue. MTand HT are more effective than presence alone or standard care in reducing pain, mood disturbance, and fatigue in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy.

Post, N. W. The effects of Therapeutic Touch on muscle tone (Master’s thesis) San Jose, CA: San Jose State University 1990. RES

Potter, Hughes P. The Experience of Therapeutic Touch as a Treatment Modality with Adolescent Psychiatric Patients.  Unpublished master’s thesis.Fundamentals of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 1994. RES

Potter, P. What are the distinctions between Reiki and therapeutic touch?, Clin J Oncol Nurs., 2003, 7(1), 89-91. MAR

Potts, Randolph Gerald Ph.D., Spirituality and the Experience of Cancer in an African American Community: Implications for Psychooncology, DePaul University 1994. Q

Protzman, Lori. The effect of Healing Touch on pain and relaxation.  Q
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
This quality assurance project collected data using a 10 point rating scales on both in-patients and outpatients receiving Healing Touch treatments. Patients rated before their session and again after (unless asleep in the hospital following their session). Of 280 sessions, from data shared with JCAHO survey in 1999, pain scale levels dropped by four. No data was extracted on relaxation score, as many times patients were asleep. 


Quinn, J.F. Therapeutic Touch as energy exchange: Testing the theory.  Advances in Nursing Science 1984, 6, 42-49. RES

Quinn, J.F. Building a body of knowledge: Research on Therapeutic Touch 1974-1986.  Journal of Holistic Nursing 1988, 6(1), 37-45. DISC

Quinn, J.F. Therapeutic Touch as energy exchange: Replication and extension. Nursing Science Quarterly 1989, 2(2), 79-87. RES

Quinn, J.F.  Future directions for therapeutic Touch Research.  Journal of Holistic Nursing 1989, 7(1), 19-25. DISC

Quinn, J.F/ Strelkauskas, A.J. Psychoimmunologic effects of Therapeutic Touch on practitioners and recently bereaved recipients: A pilot study.  Advances in Nursing Science 1993, 15(4), 13-26. RES

Quinn, J.F. An investigation of the effects of Therapeutic Touch done without physical contact on state anxiety of hospitalized cardiovascular patients.  Dissertation Abstracts International 1982,43, 1797. RES


Radin, Dean I/ Machado, Fatima Regina/ Zangari, Wellington. Effects of Distant Healing Intention Through Time and Space: Two Exploratory Studies, Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine, 11(3). RES
“Two double-blind experiments explored the effects of healing intention directed towards a distant person. The distant person’s respiration, heart rate, fingertip blood volume, and spontaneous electrodermal activity were continuously monitored during 20 randomly counterbalanced one-minute “treatment” and control epochs. The first experiment examined the effects of a group’s healing intention directed in real-time at volunteers isolated 200 meters away. The second experiment studied the effects of Umbanda mediums who directed their healing intentions from Sao Paulo, Brazil towards volunteers who were monitored two months earlier in Las Vegas, Nevada. The first study showed that the groups’ healing intention was associated with an increase in breathing rate (p = 0.053, two-tail) and a decrease in electrodermal activity (p = 0.055, two-tail) in the distant volunteers. The second study showed that despite a separation of 6,000 miles in space and two months in time, the mediums’ healing intention was associated with an increase in fingertip blood volume (p = 0.013, two-tail) and an increase in electrodermal activity (p = 0.031, two-tail) in the distant volunteers. Possible alternative explanations for the reported effects are considered, and the experimental outcomes and methodological implications are discussed.”

Radin, Dean/ Taft, Ryan/ Yount, Garret. Effects of Healing Intention on Cultured Cells and Truly Random Events, The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 2004, 10(1), 103-112. RES
OBJECTIVE: To explore effects of healing intention and intentional space conditioning on the growth of cultured human brain cells and the distribution of truly random events.
DESIGN: The experiment took place inside an electromagnetically and acoustically shielded chamber over a period of 3 days. On each day randomly selected flasks of human astrocytes in culture were exposed to healing treatments; an equal number of unexposed flasks served as controls. Intentional healing and space-conditioning meditations were repeatedly held inside the chamber over the course of the experiment to see if this activity would cumulatively enhance the efficacy ofhealing treatments. To monitor the environment for negentropic effects possibly associated with healing intention, three truly random number generators were operated continuously throughout the duration of the experiment.
OUTCOME MEASURES: For the cell cultures, the outcome measure was the difference in mean colonies formed under healing intention versus control conditions, and the change in these differences over the 3-day experiment. For the random number generators, the outcome measure was the variance in the distribution of random numbers generated, compared to chance expectation.
RESULTS: There was no overall difference in growth between treated and control cells. A treatment by day interaction indicated that treated cells grew more than control cells as the experiment progressed (p=0.02). The three random number generators deviated from chance expectation on the morning of the third day of the experiment (combined peak associated with p = 0.00009).
CONCLUSIONS: Results were consistent with the postulate that healing intention, applied repeatedly in a given location, may alter or condition that site so as to enhance the growth of treated cell cultures compared to untreated controls. Repeated intentions also appear to be associated with a general increase in negentropy or statistical order.

Radin, Dean/ Lobach, Eva. Toward understanding the placebo effect: investigating a possible retrocausal factor, The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Volume 13, Number 7, 2007, pp. 733-739   RES
OBJECTIVE: Conventional models of placebo effects assume that all mind-body responses associated with expectation can be explained by ordinary causal processes. This experiment tested whether some placebo effects may also involve retrocausal, or time-reversed, influences. 
DESIGN: Slow cortical potentials in the brain were monitored while adult volunteers anticipated either a flash of light or no flash, selected with equal probability by a noise-based random number generator. Data were collected in individual sessions of 100 trials, contributed by 13 female and 7 male adult participants. 
OUTCOME MEASURES: Ensemble median slow cortical potentials 1 second prior to a light flash were compared with the same measures prior to no flash. A nonparametric randomized permutation technique was used to statistically assess the observed difference. Electroencephalographic data were analyzed separately by gender. 
RESULTS: Females' slow cortical potentials significantly differentiated before stimulus onset (z = 2.72, p = 0.007, two-tailed); males showed a suggestive effect in the opposite direction (z = -1.64, p = 0.10, two-tailed). Examination of alternative explanations indicated that the significant effect in females was not caused by anticipatory strategies, equipment or environmental artifacts, or violation of statistical assumptions. 
CONCLUSIONS: This experiment, in accordance with previous studies showing similar, unconscious "presentiment" effects in humans, suggests that comprehensive models seeking to explain placebo effects, and in general how expectation affects the mind and body, may require consideration of retrocausal influences.

Radin, D. et al, Remote mental influence of human electrodermal activity,European J. Parapsychology 1995, 11, 19-34. RES

Ramsey, SM. Holistic manual therapy techniques.
 Primary Care, 1997, 24, 759-786. MAR
ABSTRACT:  This article focuses on three holistic manual therapy techniques: myofascial release, Trager psychophysical integration and Therapeutic Touch.  The theories and principles of each technique, indications, and contraindications for treatment, an overview of the actual approach and case studies are outlined, and the principles that make them effective complementary therapies in health care are discussed.

Randall, J. L. An attempt to detect psi effects with protozoa, Journal of the Society for Psychical Research 1970, 45, 294-296. RES

Randolph, G. L. Therapeutic Touch and physical touch: Physiological response to stressful stimuli, Nursing Research 1984, 33(1), 33-36. RES

Randolph, G.L. The differences in physiological response of female college students exposed to stressful stimulus, when simultaneously treated by either therapeutic touch or casual touch.  Dissertation Abstracts International 1980, 41, 523. RES

Rauscher, Elizabeth A./ Rubik, Beverly A. Human volitional effects on a model bacterial system, Psi Research 1983, 2(1), 38-48; also in: A. Effects on motility behavior and growth of salmonella typhimurium in the presence of a psychic subject, In:, Research in Parapsychology 1979, Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow 1980. RES

Rebman, Janine M./ Wezelman, Rens/ Radin, Dean I. et al, Remote influence of human physiology by a ritual healing technique, Subtle Energies 1995, 6(2), 111-134. RES

Redner, Robin/ Briner, Barbara/ Snellman, Lynn, Effects of a bioenergy healing technique on chronic pain, Subtle Energies 1991, 2(3), 43-68. RES

Rein, Glen/ McCraty, Rollin. Modulation of DNA By Coherent Heart Frequencies, Unpublished Paper. RES

Rein, Glen, An exosomatic effect on neurotransmitter metabolism in mice: A pilot study, Second International Society for Parapsychological Research Conference, Cambridge, England 1978. RES

Rein, Glen, A psychokinetic effect of neurotransmitter metabolism: Alterations in the degradative enzyme monoamine oxidase, In: Weiner, Debra H./ Radin, Dean (Eds), Research in Parapsychology 1985, Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow 1986, 77-80. RES

Rein, Glen/ McCraty, Rollin: DNA as a detector of subtle energies(Proceedings of the 4th Annual Conference of the International Society for the Study of Subtle Energy and Energy Medicine, Boulder, CO 1994. RES

Rein, Glen/ McCraty, Rollin: Structural changes in water and DNA associated with new physiologically measurable states, Journal of Scientific Exploration 1995, 8(3), 438-439 (reprinted with permission of the publishers, ERL 306, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94305-4055, FAX 415 595 4466). RES

Renard, Ann M, The Experience of Healing from Deprivation of Bonding (Touch, Emotional Attachment), (dissertation) The Union Institute 1994. Q

Reuss, K. L. Like water and honey: A conceptual triangulation of the autonomic nervous system response and subjective experience of Therapeutic Touch. Denver, CO: University of Colorado Health Sciences Center 2004. AAT 3127073RES
The purposes of this study were to examine variation in autonomic nervous system response during therapeutic touch, describe the subjective experience of receiving therapeutic touch, and identify conceptual links between the physiological response to and the subjective experience of receiving therapeutic touch. A one group repeated measures single blind design was utilized in this descriptive exploratory study. Sixty subjects received both therapeutic touch and a mimic treatment on the same day with a washout period between treatments. Subjects served as their own control, were randomly assigned to treatment order, and blinded to which treatment they were receiving. Interviews were conducted after each treatment to elicit subjective descriptions of the experience. Fifteen nurses were recruited to administer treatments; six therapeutic touch practitioners and nine nurses trained in a mimic treatment. 
Heart rate, respiratory rate, skin conductance, skin temperature, and muscle tension were monitored continuously during the treatments. Both therapeutic touch and the mimic treatment produced evidence of a physiological relaxation response in skin conductance, muscle tension, and skin temperature. Respiratory rate was significantly lower during therapeutic touch. Neither
treatment had an effect on heart rate. The data suggests therapeutic touch may have had a stronger effect on muscle tension and skin conductance than the mimic treatment. Skin temperature was noted to be significantly higher in the treatment that was given first. 
Four themes emerged in the qualitative data: Engagement in mutual process, Human field manifestations, Re-patteming and Subject Preferences. Findings
suggest a positive health outcomes and a mutual process of connecting with spirit during the practice of therapeutic touch. Caring presence in the nurses involved as practitioners in this study and an awareness of pattern changes were noted during both treatments. 
It is postulated that breathing is a link between the physiological response and spiritual experience during TT. Respiratory rate was the only physiological
indicator that clearly differentiated TT and MTT practice.

Rexilius, SJ/ Mundt, CA/ Megel, ME/ Agrawal, S. Therapeutic effects of massage therapy and Healing Touch on caregivers of patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant, Oncology Nursing Forum 2002, 29(3), 1-14. (Data based/Peer reviewed). RES
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of massage therapy and Healing Touch on anxiety, depressions, subjective caregiver burden, and fatigue experienced by caregivers of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. A quasi-experimental repeated measures design was used with 26 caregivers. The caregivers in the control group received usual nursing care and a ten-minute supportive visit from one of the researchers and caregivers in the treatment groups received two 30-minute massages or Healing Touch treatments per week for three weeks. Anxiety and depression scores decreased for the Healing Touch group but did not achieve significance. Fatigue scores increased. In the post-study questionnaire most of the Healing Touch group found the treatments very relaxing and provided a time when they could focus on themselves and not worry about their family member.

Richmond, Nigel, Two series of PK tests on paramecia, Journal of the Society for Psychical Research 1952, 36, 577-578. RES

Riscalla, Louise Mead, A study of religious healers and healees, Journal of the American Society for Psychosomatic Dentistry and Medicine 1982, 29(3), 97- 103. SURV

Roberts, L/ Ahmed, I/ Hall, S. Intercessory Prayer for the Alleviation of Ill Health (Cochrane Review), The Cochrane Library, 2001, 2. META

Robinson, L. S. The effects of Therapeutic Touch on the grief experience, (Doctoral dissertation) Birmingham, AB: University of Alabama 1996. RES

Roney-Dougal, SM/ Solfvin, J. Field Study of Enhancement Effect on Lettuce Seeds: Their Germination Rate, Growth and Health, Journal of the Society for Psychicial Research, 2002, 66.3(868), 129. RES
In parapsychology there is a classic healing experiment in which seeds are stressed, then randomly assigned to either a healing or control group. Several of these studies have found that there is greater growth and healthier plants from the healed group. This basic laboratory experiment was taken out on a field trial at an organic farm. In this experiment the healthy organic seeds were not stressed beforehand, as were looking here for greater health in the ‘enhanced’ plants. This initial pilot study had three primary hypotheses: the ‘enhanced’ seeds would have a greater rate of germination, greater growth and better health than the control. There were eight trials beginning in April, the final harvest being in December. The results do not favour the hypotheses of greater rate of germination and growth, but there is a measure of support for better health. There is a trend towards a significant effect here (F(3,24) = 3.13, p = 0.044), with the ‘enhanced’ group having the least fungal damage.

Roney-Dougal, SM/ Solfvin, J. Field Study of Enhancement Effect on Lettuce Seeds: A Replication Study, Journal of Parapsychology, Fall 2003, 67.(279-297) RES
A field trial with lettuce plants was previously conducted in 2000 on a commercial organic farm. In that experiment, a healer was asked to enhance a group of healthy organic lettuce seeds for greater germination, growth, and better health; Only the third aspect gave significant results, with the plants grown from the enhanced seeds having less fungal disease. The current study is a replication conducted the following year (2001) a randomized double-blind design with four treatment conditions: one jar of seeds (HX) was enhanced by the healer while a control person mimicked his actions with a second jar (NH) and two jars (C1, C2) remained untreated on the table. The seeds were germinated, planted out, and harvested by the farmers. Each lettuce was weighed upon harvesting and after trimming, rated for slug and fungal damage, and sent off to market. The growth hypothesis was confirmed by significant enhancement in gross weight and net weight for treated seeds, and the health hypothesis by significant reductions in slug and fungal damage. Overall, the enhanced seeds yielded about a 10% larger total crop during the season than any of the other three groups, suggesting a practical value for the commercial farmer.

Roth, S. D. Effect of Therapeutic Touch concepts on the anxiety levels of nursing students in a psychiatric setting (Master’s thesis), San Jose, CA: Bellarmine College 1995. Q

Rubik, Beverly. In vitro effect of Reiki treatment on bacterial cultures , Abstract presented at 2nd Annual ISSSEEM Research Symposium on Energetic and Spiritual Processes in Healing, June 24, 2005, Colorado Springs, CO RES

OBJECTIVE:  To measure effects of Reiki treatments on bacterial growth, and to determine the influence, if any, of healing context and practitioner psychosocial well-being.
Materials and Methods:  E. coli K12 culture samples were heat-shocked prior to Reiki treatment, which was performed for up to 15 min, with untreated matched controls.  Plate count assay using an automated colony counter determined the number of viable bacteria per sample.  14 Reiki practitioners each completed 3 runs (n = 42 runs; nonhealing context), and another 2 runs (n = 28 runs) in which they first treated a pain patient for 30 minutes (healing context).  Psychosocial questionnaires were administered to practitioners pre-post each session.  
RESULTS:  No difference was found between the Reiki and control plates in the nonhealing context.  In healing context, the Reiki treated cultures overall showed more bacteria than controls (p< 0.05).  Practitioner social (p<0.013) and emotional wellbeing (p<0.021) correlated with Reiki treatment outcome on bacterial cultures in the nonhealing context.  Practitioner social (p<0.031), physical (p<0.030), and emotional (p<0.026) wellbeing correlated with Reiki treatment outcome on the bacterial cultures in the healing context.   For practitioners starting with diminished wellbeing, control counts were likely to be higher than Reiki counts.  For practitioners starting with a higher level of wellbeing, Reiki counts were likely to be higher than control counts.  
CONCLUSION:  Reiki improves growth of heat-shocked bacterial cultures in healing context.  Changes in practitioners’ well-being correlate with the outcome of Reiki on bacterial culture growth.  The practitioner’s initial well-being is key to the outcome on bacterial growth.

Russell, Edward. Report On Radionics: Science of the Future, The Science Which Can Cure Where Orthodox Medicine Fails, Suffolk, England: Neville Spearman 1973. Distant healing for plants. RES


Saklani, Alok, Preliminary tests for psi-ability in shamans of Garhwal Himalaya,Journal of the Society for Psychical Research 1988, 55(81), 60-70. Plants. RES

Saklani, Alok, Psychokinetic effects on plant growth: further studies, In: Henkel, Linda A./ Palmer, John. Research in Parapsychology 1989, 1990, 37- 41. Plants. RES

Samarel, Nelda/ Fawcett, Jacqueline/ Davis, Moira M/ Ryan, Francisca M. Effects of Dialogue and Therapeutic Touch on Preoperative and Postoperative Experiences of Breast Cancer Surgery: An Exploratory Study, 1998, 25(8) 1369-1376. RES

Samarel, N. Therapeutic Touch, dialogue, and women’s experiences in breast cancer surgery. Holistic Nursing Practice 1997, 12(1). 62-70. RES
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To obtain preliminary data and determine the feasibility of a large-scale experimental study to test the efficacy of the Rogerian Science of Unitary Human Beings-based intervention of Dialogue and therapeutic touch (TT) on pre- and postoperative anxiety and mood and postoperative pain from breast cancer surgery.
DESIGN: Experimental
SETTING: Mid-Atlantic region; ambulatory
SAMPLE: 29 Caucasian and 2 African American English-speaking women with positive breast cancer biopsy (experimental, n=14; control, n=17), ranging in age from 31-84 years old (F=55.6)
METHODS: Treatments administered in subjects’ homes within seven days prior to surgery and 24 hours after hospital discharge. Experimental treatment consisted of 10 minutes of TT and 20 minutes of dialogue. Control treatment consisted of 10 minutes of quiet time and 20 minutes of dialogue. Data(Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Affects Balance Scale, and Visual Analog Scale-Pain) were collected at the conclusion of each home visit.
MAIN RESEARCH VARIABLES: Anxiety, mood and pain
FINDINGS: The experimental group had lower preoperative state anxiety than the control groups (p=0.008). No difference was found for preoperative mood. No differences were found for any postoperative measure.
CONCLUSIONS: A large-scale study of dialogue and TT would require changes in design and recruitment strategies.
IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE: Nurses may provide more comprehensive care by incorporating dialogue and TT or quiet time into their pre- and postoperative care. Additional research, however, is recommended to determine the differential effects of dialogue, TT, and quiet time on women’s experiences with breast cancer prior to incorporating these noninvasive modalities into clinical practice.

Samarel, Nelda, The experience of receiving Therapeutic Touch, Journal of Advanced Nursing 1992, 17, 651-657. Q

Sancier, Kenneth M./ Chow, Effie Poy Yew, Effects of external and internal Qi as measured experimentally by muscle testing, Healing with Qigong and quantitative effects of Qigong, Journal of the American College of Traditional Chinese Medicine 1989, 7(3), 13-19. RES

Saudia, Theresa L/ Kinney Marguerite R/ Brown, Kathleen C/ Ward, Leslie Young. Health locus of control and helpfulness of prayer, Heart and Lung, 1991, 20(1), 60-65. MAR

Scandrett-Hibdon, Sharon/ Hardy, Cheryl/ Mentgen, Janet. Energetic Patterns: Healing Touch Case Studies, Vol. 1. PILOT RES?
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
Volume I shows energetic pattern trends across six conditions: breast cancer, back pain, HIV Aids, multiple scerolosis, high-risk pregnancy and primary care. Interventions by practitioners were evaluated for efficacy with each condition. The commitment of this project is to initially “map the field” so that energetic configurations can be verified by homogenous populations in more controlled studies.

Scheel, N. The Development and initial testing of an instrument to assess advanced practice nursing graduate students’ attitudes toward Healing Touch, Unpublished master’s thesis, Mankato State University, Mankato, Minnesota, 1997. (Data based). MAR METH
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
The purpose of this exploratory study was to develop and initially test an instrument to assess advanced practice nursing graduate students’ knowledge and attitudes toward Healing Touch. The instrument, A Surgery Study of Advanced Practice Nursing Graduate Students’ Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Healing Touch was initially tested by a convenience sample of 14 volunteer first year advanced practice nursing graduate students attending Mankato State University in Mankato, Minnesota. There were no significant relationships so the investigator made recommendations for instrument revisions. 

Schlitz, Marilyn PK on living systems: further studies with anesthetized mice, Presentation at Southeastern Regional Parapsychological Association 1982, (Reviewed In: Weiner, Debra H. Southeastern Regional Parapsychological Association Conference, Journal of Parapsychology, 1982, 46, 51-53; also, more briefly, in Weiner, Debra H. Report of the 1982 SERPA Conference, Parapsychology Review 1982, 13(4), 13). RES

Schlitz, Marilyn J./ Braud, William G. Reiki plus natural healing: An ethnographic/experimental study, Psi Research 1985, 4(3/4), 100-123 (Also In: Weiner, Debra/ Radin, Dean (Eds), Research in Parapsychology 1985, Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow 1986, 17-18). RES

Schmidt, Stefan/ Schneider, Rainer/ Utts, Jessica/ Walach, Harald. Remote Intention on Electrodermal Activity – Two Meta-Analyses, Proceeding of the 45th American Convention of the Parapsychological Association, Durham, NC, 206-222. META
In the experimental paradigm known as direct mental interaction between living systems (DMILS) two insolated participants try to interact with each other using no conventional means of communication. One participant is housed in a sound-proof chamber and electrodermal activity (EDA) is continuously recorded. The other participant has the task to either activate or calm the other person by means of intentions only. Several epochs with varying conditions (activate, calm or rest) are presented in randomized order. For evaluation tonic EDA data of the calm condition are compared with that of the activate condition. In a similar experiment called Remote Staring the same set-up is employed to research the ‘feeling of being stared at’. One participant is sitting in front of a video camera while EDA is continuously recorded. The other participant gazes at this video image at a distant location. Observation epochs and control epochs are presented in a randomized order. For evaluation EDA data of the two conditions are compared.
Earlier meta-analysis (Schlitz & Braud, 1997) showed medium effect sizes (r=.25) for both experiments but these results have been undermined by a critique of the EDA methods, applied statistics and randomization procedures. Furthermore a substantial number of larger studies were conducted in recent years. Two meta-analyses were conducted to research whether there are significant mean effect sizes and to find out whether methodological shortcomings might have been responsible for earlier positive results.
Forty experiments with 1055 sessions were found for the DMILS meta-analysis and 15 (379 sessions) for Remote Staring. All experiments were coded on a coding list containing more than 200 items. Unclear items were coded by a second, independent rater. Several methodological quality indices were constructed and the experiments were rated according to these indices.
For the DMILS meta-analysis the first statistical model yielded strong negative correlations between effect size and methodological quality. As a consequence, four methodologically weak studies were then excluded from the analysis. Sensitivity analyses on the remaining data set showed that a statistical model where the effect sizes are weighted for sample size and methodological quality, fits the data best. We found a small mean effect size of d=0.11 which was highly significant (p=.001). This finding is undermined by a best-evidence-synthesis of seven studies with the highest methodological standard, which show a smaller, non-significant mean effect size (d=.05).
The Remote Staring data set proved to be homogenous and showed no negative correlations with study quality. After a correction for sampling error it yielded a mean effect size of d= 0.13 (p=.01) and confirms the positive finding from the first analysis. An exploratory analysis showed a significant decline of effect sizes over time (r=.70, p<.01).
The obtained effect sizes are much smaller than in earlier analyses. For the DMILS meta-analysis it has to be assumed that some of the effects reported earlier are due to artifacts and shortcomings. However, we conclude that there are still some hints for the existence of an effect of remote intention but independent replications are needed.

Schuller, D. E. Therapeutic Touch and complementary therapies: A public policy paper. New York: New York Medical College 1997. DISC
Public interest in alternative and complementary therapies has grown. Health care professionals need to be familiar with available therapies in order to knowledgeably discuss their use with patients. Therapeutic Touch is a complementary practice developed and used mostly by nurses as an extension of their professional skills. Theoretical development occurred within the frameworks of field theory and Martha E. Rogers' Science of Unitary Human Beings. Research to date includes studies in theory development, outcomes and qualitative description, while the exact mechanism of action has not yet been fully characterized. Scientific progress supports understanding of the process and indications of probable action. Practitioner and recipient experiences are positive and point to continued involvement. The influence of complementary and alternative therapies within health care, education, insurance and government is advancing. Use and data collection to date indicates improvement in care and cost savings.

Schutze, Barbara, Group counseling, with and without the addition of intercessory prayer, as a factor in self esteem, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Psychotronic Research, Sao Paulo, Brazil 1979, 330-331. RES

Schwartz, Gary E./ Russek, Linda G./ Beltran, Justin, Interpersonal hand-energy registration: evidence for implicit performance and perception, Subtle Energies1995, 6(3), 183-200. RES

Schweitzer, S.F. The effects of therapeutic touch on short term memory in the aging population:  A pilot study.  Masters Abstracts International 1981, 19(4), 318. RES

Scofield, A. M./ Hodges, R. D. Demonstration of a healing effect in the laboratory using a simple plant model, Journal of the Society for Psychical Research 1991, 57, 321-343. RES

Seskevich, Jon E./Crater, Suzanne W./Lane, James D./Krucoff, Mitchell W.
Beneficial Effects of Noetic Therapies on Mood before Percutaneous Intervention for Unstable Coronary Symptoms. RES

Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
The MANTA study listed above was further explored for the effects of the noetic therapies on mood. One hundred and fifty patients were randomized to stress management, imagery, touch therapy, prayer and standard care immediately before cardiac intervention. The touch therapy was a technique used in Healing Touch. Mood was assessed before and after treatment. The analysis showed that stress management, imagery and Healing Touch all produced reductions in reported worry as compared with standard therapy and prayer had no effect. Additionally, Healing Touch significantly increased satisfaction. Although not significant there was a decrease in upsetness, sadness, and shortness of breath and an increase in calmness, hope and happiness in the Healing Touch group. Healing Touch had more significant indicators than guided imagery, stress management or standard care. The authors also found that use of noetic therapies were feasible in the hectic environment of the coronary intensive care unit.

Shah, Sonal/ Ogden, Alfred T./ Pettker, Christian M./ Raffo, Anthony/ Itescu, Silviu/ Oz, Mehmet C. A study of the effect of energy healing on in vitro tumor cell proliferation, The Journal of alternative and Complementary Medicine 1999, Volume 5, Number 4, 359-368.  RES
This study examined the effect of energy healing on in vitro tumor cell growth using the cell culture model similar to that embraced by oncologists to assess the effect of chemotherapeutic agents. After selecting an energy healer based on his ability to influence this model, we assessed the effects of energy treatment compared to cells left at ambient temperature and to a control treatment consisting of a medical student mimicking the healer. A chi-square test comparing a medical student’s and the practitioner’s ability to inhibit tumor cell growth by 15% associates our practitioner with inhibition of tumor cell proliferation (p=0.02). We also found that the magnitude of change was too close to the assay’s intrinsic margin of error, thus making our quantitative data difficult to interpret. Although energy healing appears to influence several indices of growth in in vitro tumor cell proliferation, these assays are limited in their ability to define and prove the existence of this phenomenon. More sensitive biological assays are needed for further study in this field.

Shealy, C. Norman/ Smith, Timothy/ Liss, Saul/ Borgmeyer, Vera, EEG Alterations During Absent “Healing”, Subtle Energies, 2000, 11(3), 241-248. RES
    Healers directed healing to 110 subjects 100 feet to 160 miles away. Moderate to marked EEG changes were noted in all subjects, particularly in the portions of the brain targeted by the healers.

Five separate individuals who regard themselves as healers or spiritual healers, in a time controlled situation, were asked to send healing energy to a total of 110 subjects who were located from 100 feet to 160 miles from the healer. In all instances, there were moderate to quite striking changes in the subjectss’ EEG usually occurring within the first five minutes of the sending of healing energy, but some times appearing most dramatic twenty minutes after the completion of the healing. Almost always there was a marked increase in delta activity in all areas of the brain with less significant increases in theta ad alpha activity. In 50 of the subjects, the healer was directed to send energy initially either to the frontal or occipital area and then later to reverse the intended area of the brain. In these cases, there was a much greater increase of brain wave activity in the part of the brain to which the healers’ energy was directed, although most of the time the increased healing energy also affected other lobes of the brain. It appears that human mental intent to heal, especially by trained healers, is transmitted through space from over 100 feet to 160 miles.

Shealy, C. Norman, et al. Non-pharmaceutical treatment of depression using a multimodal approach, Subtle Energies 1993, 4(2), 125-134. RES

Shiflett, Samuel C/ Nayak, Sangeetha/ Bid, Champa/ Miles, Pamela/ Agostinelli, Sandra. Effect of Reiki Treatments on Functional Recovery in Patients in Poststroke Rehabilitation: A Pilot Study, The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 2002, 8(6), 755-763. RES
OBJECTIVES: The three objectives of this study were: (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of Reiki an adjunctive treatment for patients with subacute stroke who were receiving standard rehabilitation as inpatients, (2) to evaluate a double-blinded procedure for training Reiki practitioners, and (3) to determine whether or not double-blinded Reiki and sham practitioners could determine which category they were in. 
DESIGN: A modified double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial with an additional historic control condition. SETTING: The stroke unit of a major rehabilitation hospital. 
SUBJECTS: Fifty (50) inpatients with subacute ischemic stroke, 31 male and 19 female. Interventions: There were four conditions: Reiki master, Reiki practitioner, sham Reiki, and no treatment (historic control). Subjects received up to 10 treatments over a 2!jz-week period in addition to standard rehabilitation. 
OUTCOME MEASURES: Functional independence measure (FIM), and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) measure. 
RESULTS: No effects of Reiki were found on the FIM or CES-D, although typical effects as a result of age, gender, and time in rehabilitation were detected. Blinded practitioners (sham or reiki) were unable to determine which category they were in. Sham Reiki practitioners reported greater frequency of feeling heat in the hands compared to Reiki practitioners. There was no reported difference between the sham and the real Reiki practitioners in their ability to feel energy flowing through their hands. Post hoc analyses suggested that Reiki may have had limited effects on mood and energy levels. 
CONCLUSION: Reiki did not have any clinically useful effect on stroke recovery in subacute hospitalized patients receiving standard-of-care rehabilitation therapy. Selective positive effects on mood and energy were not the result of attentional or placebo effects.

Sholem, Jane Ph.D., Listening to the Labyrinth: An Organic and Intuitive Inquiry (Self Reflection), Institute of Transpersonal Psychology 1999. Q

Shore, Adina Leah Goldman, The Long-Term Effects of Energetic Healing on Symptoms of Psychological Depression and Self-Perceived Stress, PhD, Institute of Transpersonal Psychology, 2002, 180 pp. RES
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: The present investigation examined the long-term effects of Reiki, a form of energetic healing, on symptoms of psychological depression and self-perceived stress as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Hopelessness (HS), and Perceived Stress (PSS) scales. Fifty participants in need of healing were randomly assigned to one of three groups: hands-on Reiki (Group 1), non-touch Reiki (Group 2), or Reiki placebo distance group (Group 3), and remained blind to treatment condition. Pretest data were collected before the onset of treatment; posttest data were collected upon completion of treatment 6 weeks later; and follow-up data were collected one year after completion of treatment. Although no significant difference between groups existed at pretest data collection, treatment groups exhibited significant reduction in depressive and stress symptomatology as compared with controls. One year later, these findings were maintained. The present investigation therefore recommends the integration of energetic healing into mainstream health care and traditional interventions. 
Energetic or spiritual healing has been documented and practiced in nearly every civilization throughout the span of human existence (Benson, 1975). The present investigation examined the long-term effects of Reiki, a form of energetic healing, on symptoms of psychological depression and self-perceived stress as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BOI), Beck Hopelessness (HS), and Perceived Stress (PSS) scales. Fifty participants in need of healing were randomly assigned to one of three groups: hands-on Reiki (Group 1), non-touch Reiki (Group 2), or Reiki placebo distance group (Group 3), and remained blind to treatment condition. Reiki practitioners provided participants with a free 1-1&frac12; hour treatment each week for a 6-week duration. Pretest data were collected before the onset of treatment; posttest data were collected upon completion of treatment 6 weeks later; and follow-up data were collected one year after completion of treatment. Repeated measures analyses, effect size computations, and Tukey post hoc comparisons assessed the long-term effects of hands-on, distance, and placebo distance Reiki treatments on symptoms of psychological depression and stress. Tests for change over time, correlations between measures, and qualitative data (interviews) provided additional analyses to further understanding of the experience and effects of energetic healing treatments. Findings demonstrated that although no significant difference between groups existed at pretest data collection, treatment groups exhibited significant reduction in depressive and stress symptomology as compared with controls. One year later, these findings were maintained. The results support research hypotheses of a significant long-term reduction of symptoms of depression (BOI), hopelessness (HS), and stress (PSS), exhibited by individuals in the treatment groups, as compared with control group participants at posttest and follow-up intervals. Findings demonstrate the therapeutic function of energetic healing on symptoms of psychological distress. The present investigation therefore recommends the integration of energetic healing into mainstream health care and traditional interventions.

Shuzman, E. The effect of trait anxiety and patient expectation of therapeutic touch on the reduction in state anxiety in preoperative patients who receive therapeutic touch.  New York University 1993. RES

Sicher, Fred/ Targ, Elisabeth/ Moore, Dan/ Smith, Helene S. A randomized, double-blind study of the effects of distant healing in a population with advanced AIDS,Western Journal of Medicine 1998, 169(6), 356-363. RES

Sies, M. M. An exploratory study of relaxation response in nurses who utilize Therapeutic Touch (Master’s thesis) Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona 1987. RES? Q?

Silva, Maria Adela Concepcion. The Effect of Relaxation (Healing Touch) Touch on the recovery level of postanesthesia abdominal hysterectomy patients. RES
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
This study evaluated the effects of Healing Touch on the amount of narcotic analgesic self-administered postoperatively, the frequency of bowel program treatments and medications administered to patients with abdominal hysterectomies. Sixty preoperative patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Healing Touch, back massage, and no treatment. The results indicated that the Healing Touch subjects had a significantly higher level of recovery than the two controls on lung, gastro-intestinal, and activity status. Reduction of systolic and diastolic blood pressures and pulse rate were statistically significant for the Healing Touch group and the amount of narcotic analgesia and bowel treatments were less in this group as well.

Simington J. A/ Laing G. P.  Effects of Therapeutic Touch on anxiety in the institutionalized elderly, Clinical Nursing Research 1993, 2(4), 438-450. RES

Simpson, BS. The use of Therapeutic Touch and Healing Touch with counseling, Unpublished master’s thesis, Master of Education Department of Counseling Psychology, The University of British Columbia, Canada, 1998. (Data based). RES
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
The study found that energy work and counseling complement each other and facilitate healing. Qualitative analysis was done with seven informants who are nurse practitioners or social workers. The data describe the effects of the healing work in creating a connection with the client and how it aids clients’ access to their emotional material faster, which is often revealed when working on the presenting physical symptoms. The paper also explores how it helps clients more readily integrate the work of a talk therapy session. The healers described how they use the healing work to open sessions and teach clients and /or their supporters in order to continue the support in their lives.

Slater, Victoria Elizabeth. Safety, Elements, and Effects of Healing Touch on Chronic Non-Malignant Abdominal Pain, PhD, The University of Tennessee, 1996. QAL
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
This experimental study examined the safety, elements, and effects of Healing Touch in 23 individuals who had had abdominal surgery at least four weeks prior to admission to the study. More than half of the subjects had been in pain more than a year after surgery. Each received three different treatments given on separate days: Healing Touch given by an experienced practitioner, Healing Touch given by a naive provider, and an interview. All three treatments were found to be safe for recipients and providers, but the naive providers had more discomfort than the Healing Touch providers did. Quantitative results indicated there was no significant difference in changes in pain perception after Healing Touch and naive treatments but that the naive treatment was evaluated as being preferred. The interview was followed by less pain relief than after Healing Touch for the naive treatment, indicating that Healing Touch is not simply related to the nurse’s presence and attention to the subject. Qualitative data contradicted quantitative data. Subjects reported more relaxation and pain relief after Healing Touch than the naive treatment. The confusing results may indicate that people in pain may evaluate their pain on criteria other than pain sensations. 
The experimental study examined the safety, elements, and effects of Healing Touch (HT). Twenty three recipients were required to have had abdominal surgery at least four weeks prior to admission to the study and be in continuing pain they associated with the surgery. More than half of the subjects had been in pain more than a year after surgery, one for 9 years and 9 months.
Each received three different treatments given on separate days: Healing Touch given an experienced practitioner, HT given by a naïve provider, and an interview. The order of treatments was selected randomly. Treatments given by HT and naïve providers were identical. Each was a combination of standard HT techniques called magnetic unruffling and wound sealing. The interview was a placebo control to determine if HT is more than just a nurse paying attention to a person in pain. Quantitative changes in perceived pain before and after treatments were measured by providers’ and recipients’ experiences were obtained and analysed using content analysis.
All three treatments were found to be safe for recipients and providers, but the naïve providers had more discomfort than the HT providers. Recipients experienced more, headaches, dizziness, and drowsiness after HT than after the naïve treatment. The treatments were uncomfortable for some, but not unsafe.
Quantitative results indicated there was no significant difference in changes in pain perception after HT and naïve treatment, indicating that HT is not simply related to the nurse’s presence and attention to the subject.
Qualitative data contradicted quantitative data. Subjects reported more relaxation and pain relief after HT than the naïve treatment. The confusing results may indicate that the MPQ differentiates between dimensions of pain, that people in pain may evaluate their pain on criteria other than [missing some words] manner experienced discomfort because they were touching a person in pain, nurses in ordinary clinical settings may have similar effects, (3) HT given by an experienced and a naïve provider results in essentially the same pain relief, and (4) HT may tap into a natural human ability that training can both enhance and interfere with.
Were results due to had motions alone, the nature of the providers, the nature of the research situation, is HT a complex ritual, were the effects due exclusively to the recipients’ resting and/or being touched, a combination of factors, or an unknown influence? Further research is needed.

Slater, Victoria. Human holistic and energetic responses following a tornado,Journal of Holistic Nursing, Mar 2004 ,Vol. 22 No. 1,  85-92. QUAL
 “After an F-4 tornado destroyed a large section of our town, I gave 50 complementary energy treatments to tornado victims.  I discovered that the same energetic, physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual disruption occurred in people directly and indirectly exposed to the tornado, and that the damage did not repair spontaneously over time. This article describes the energetic damage people sustained from the tornado and their physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual responses.  It also describes the energetic treatment that effectively eliminated the trauma, returning the tornado victims to a stable state.  The article concludes with clinical and research implications and relates the treatment of the tornado victims to holistic nursing.  The treatment holds promise for victims of posttraumatic stress disorder.”

Smith, Allan L/ Laskow, Leonard. Intentional healing in cultured breast cancer cells, The Academy of Religion and Psychical Research Proceedings, 2000, 96-100. RES

Smith DW/ Arnstein P/ Rosa KC/ Wells-Federman C. Effects of integrating therapeutic touch into a cognitive behavioral pain treatment program. Report of a pilot clinical trial, J Holist Nurs 2002., 20(4):367-87. MAR
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of offering Therapeutic Touch (TT) as an adjunct to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for people with chronic pain. Patients were randomized to relaxation training (control group) or TT plus relaxation (experimental). Subsequently, all participants attended a CBT program. Preprogram and postprogram data were examined to identify patterns of change in pain intensity, self-efficacy, unitary power, disability, and perceived distress. In addition, patterns of attrition were examined. Patients in this study who were randomized to receive TT fared better in terms of enhanced self-efficacy and unitary power, as well as having lower attrition rates. Trends associated TT with less distress and disability. This pilot study suggests that offering TT as an adjunct to CBT may help to improve clinical outcomes, reduce program attrition, and promote unitary power in those who suffer with chronic pain.
Smith, D. W. A pilot study of field pattern changes in people experiencing Therapeutic Touch. New York: Presented at Martha E. Rogers Conference, June 1998. RES? Q?

Smith, D.W. Pattern changes in people experiencing therapeutic touch, phase I: Power and spirituality in students learning Therapeutic Touch. Rogerian Nursing Science News 2000, 12(3), 2p. Q?

Smith, D. W. Pattern changes in people experiencing Therapeutic Touch. Phase II.Rogerian Nursing Science News 2000, xii(4), 6, 11. RES? Q?

Smith, Justa, Paranormal effects on enzyme activity, Human Dimensions 1972, 1, 15-19. RES

Smith, M/ Reeder, F/ Daniel, L/ Baramee, J/ Hagman, J. Outcomes of touch therapies during bone marrow transplant, Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 2003, 9(1), 40-49. RES
CONTEXT: The integration of complementary modalities into mainstream healthcare is gaining increasing emphasis. It is important, therefore, to document the effects of these interventions on patient outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of Therapeutic Touch and massage therapy on the outcomes of engraftment time, complications, and perceived benefits of therapy during bone marrow transplant. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Subjects were adult patients on the bone marrow transplant unit of a large urban tertiary care center. INTERVENTIONS: Subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: Therapeutic Touch (TT), massage therapy (MT), and a control group called the friendly visit (FV). Subjects (N = 88) were stratified by type of transplant (allogeneic or autologous). Twenty-seven subjects received MT; 31 received TT; and 30 received FV. Nurses with expertise in the 2 touch therapies administered them. The interventions of MT, TT, and FV were administered according to standarized protocols every third day beginning the day chemotherapy began until discharge from the program. OUTCOME MEASURES: Time for engraftment, complications, and patient perceptions of benefits of therapy were the main outcome measures. Analysis of variance and analysis of covariance were used to determine significant differences among the 3 groups with respect to time of engraftment. RESULTS: A significantly lower score for central nervous system or neurological complications was noted for subjects who received MT compared with the control group; however, no differences were found among the 3 groups with respect to the other 10 complication categories or in the total mean score for complications. Patients' perception of the benefits of therapy (total score) was significantly higher for those who received MT compared with the FV control group. The mean scores on the comfort subscale were significantly higher for patients receiving both MT and TT compared with the FV control group. CONCLUSIONS: Massage therapy may be effective in altering the psychological and neurological complications associated with chemotherapy during bone marrow transplant. Both massage and Therapeutic Touch provide comfort to patients undergoing this challenging process.

Smyth, Patricia Emily. Reducing Immunization Pain Perception in Preschoolers with Therapeutic Touch, DSN, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1999. RES
The purpose of this study was to determine if a therapeutic touch (TT)  intervention conducted prior to immunization would reduce pain perception in preschool children. Pain experienced during immunizations can have a profound impact on how the child responds to future healthcare visits. Rogers’ science of unitary human beings and the gate control theory of pain guided this study. 
The participants in this study were 80 healthy preschool children, ages 3 to 6 years, and their parents who sought immunization at the county health department in Mississippi. Descriptive statistics, Pearson produce moment correlation, analysis of variance, and least squares difference were used for statistical analysis.
The results revealed that therapeutic touch was significant statistically in reducing pain perception in pre-school children (p=.000). Post-intervention pulse and respiratory rates were significantly lower (p=.008 and p=.000, respectively) in the therapeutic touch group. Parents in the therapeutic touch group were significantly (p=.003) more satisfied. The children in the therapeutic touch group also experienced significantly fewer numbers of“crying,” pull away scream,” and “feel better slow behaviours” by parent report. The children were reported to “feel better fast” at the p=.000 significance level.

Sneed, Nancee V/ Olson, Melodie/ Bubolz, Beth/ Finch, Nancy. Influences of a Relaxation Intervention on Perceived Stress and Power Spectral Analysis of Heart Rate Variability, 2001, 57-64. RES
This study was designed to determine whether power spectral analysis (PSA) of heart rate variability (HRV) can detect change in autonomic tone following a relaxation intervention called therapeutic touch (TT). Thirty healthy subjects underwent TT by one of three TT practitioners using the steps developed by Krieger and Kunz (The Therapeutic Touch, Prentice-Hall, 1979). Both subjects and TT practitioners were monitored by continuous electrocardiographic monitoring (Holter) before (15 minutes), during, and after (15 minutes) TT was administered. Subjects and TT practitioners completed a visual analogue scale (VAS) of perceived stress before and after TT. Change scores for VAS and PSA of high-frequency/low-frequency (HF/LF) ratios were compared for the 2-minute interval before TT began and the end of TT and the end of the recovery period, using t tests. VAS scores decreased (less stress) from before to after TT for both subjects (p < 0.0005) and TT practitioners (p < 0.0005). Mean HF/LF ratios increased significantly to reflect greater parasympathetic dominance from before TT to the end of treatment for subjects (p = 0.006), but not for TT practitioners. However, further analysis revealed that this change was due to an exaggerated HF/LF response from four outliers (p < 0.0005). Data collected in this study did not reveal differences between these four subjects and the rest of the sample. There were no significant changes in HF/LF ratios from the end of TT to end of recovery for either group. Further research is needed to determine why some subjects may have greater change in autonomic tone in response to relaxation in order to be able to predict who will demonstrate physiologic response to relaxation interventions.

Snel, Frans W. J. J. PK influence on malignant cell growth, Research Letter of the University of Utrecht 1980, 10, 19-27. RES

Snel, Frans/ Hol, P. R. Psychokinesis experiments in casein induced amyloidosis of the hamster, European Journal of Parapsychology 1983, 5(1), 51-76. RES

Snel, F. W. J. J./ van der Sijde, P. C. The effect of retro-active distance healing on babesia rodhani (rodent malaria) in rats, European Journal of Parapsychology, 1990-1991, 8, 123-130. RES

Snel. Frans W. J. J./ van der Sijde, Peter C. The effect of paranormal healing on tumor growth, Journal of Scientific Exploration 1995, 9(2), 209-211. Mice. RES

Solfvin, J/ Leskowitz, E/Benor, DJ. Questions concerning the work of Daniel P. Wirth. Online at: April 15, 2005. DISC
Since 1990, Wirth had published a variety of studies on distant prayer and Therapeutic Touch. He pled guilty to conspiracy to commit mail fraud and bank fraud on May 18, 2004 and has been serving time in Federal prison. For years prior to Wirth’s current legal troubles, each of the authors of the letter referenced below had begun separately to explore concerns about Wirth’s Therapeutic Touch wound healing studies (in particular, Wirth 1990). None of us was able to obtain any responses from Wirth to specific questions about this study, despite having sent certified letters to his mailing address and to his lawyer. This has led us to publish a full report (Solfvin, Leskowitz & Benor, 2005, which is now posted at: This report is shared with the community of healing researchers and practitioners and with the public as the only way we see to clarify this murky situation. We base this on previously unreported first-hand familiarity with Wirth the mentor of his thesis (JS) and other interactions with the co-authors of this paper.  We are inviting Mr. Wirth’s responses to these issues, and inviting colleagues in research to dialogue about the following serious concerns: 
· Wirth’s avoidance of professional communication and customary collegial accessibility
· Absence of clear documentation confirming that his wound healing studies were conducted as he described
· Numerous questions about the true nature of his listed co-authors’ involvements in these studies
· A possibility that With’s studies are fraudulent.

The community of spiritual healing researchers must not ignore possible malfeasance in its ranks, if the credibility of the healing community as a whole is not to suffer. The considerable body of healing research published by numerous authors conforming to proper scientific standards in research design, execution and publication is substantial and solid enough (Benor, 2001) for the healing community to make the following suggestion without fear that the entire body of healing research should be put in question: We propose that Wirth’s studies should not be considered scientifically valid until he responds directly to the concerns detailed in the article referenced above. Furthermore, we invite the scientific community to address the various issues raised by these questions, such as the responsibility of authors, co-authors, editors, and reviewers to maintain the highest ethical standards.

Solfvin, G. F. Studies of the effects of mental healing and expectations on the growth of corn seedlings, European Journal of Parapsychology 1982(b), 4(3), 287-323. RES

Speel, L. A pilot study on the effect of Healing Touch-Mind clearing and magnetic unruffling on high school students with mental and physical disabilities, Healing Touch International, Research Survey, Lakewood, CO: Healing Touch International, Inc. 2003. (Data based). RES
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
This pilot study was conducted to evaluate the possible beneficial effects of Healing Touch modalities on students with extreme to moderate physical and emotional conditions. It was done in a classroom of a small high school special day class comprised of students with various disabilities. Three students participated regularly, whereas the other students only occasionally agreed to this treatment. The subjects were asked to describe any experiences during the sessions and how they felt afterwards. Some of the students could not verbally respond, so visual assessment was employed or the teacher or aide would comment. One of the subjects was usually eager for the session and was relaxed or calm afterwards. For another subject Healing Touch produced a calming effect usually stopping his grimacing and spasms entirely in 30 out of 35 sessions and helped him achieve greater extension with his range of motion exercises. Subject 3 would experience cessation of spasms and said she enjoyed it and it made her feel healthy. Subject 4 had relief of headache symptoms and relaxation.

Steckel, CM/ King, RP. Nursing Grand Rounds. Therapeutic Touch in the coronary care unit, Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 1996, 10, 50-54. DISC
ABSTRACT:  Therapeutic Touch is an energy-based nursing intervention performed with the goals of restoring harmony and balance in the human energy field and helping the patient self-heal.  This article discusses the process of Therapeutic Touch and describes case studies of CCU patients on whom Therapeutic Touch was used as part of the treatment plan.

Stouffer, D/ Kaiser, D/ Stouffer, J. Effect of aspartame on the human energy field, paper presented at the Third Annual Healing Touch International Conference, Denver, CO, 1999. (Data based). MAR
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
Healing Touch assessment techniques were used to measure the effect of carbonated beverages with and without aspartame on the solar plexus and sacral chakras of 50 healthy people. Initially the chakras were open. After consumption of a carbonated beverage with regular sweetening about 1/3 were open, 1/3 blocked and 1/3 closed. After consumption aspartame sweetened beverage approximately 1/3 were blocked and 2/3 were closed. They noted a possible explanation as due to carbon dioxide, a human waste product and the menthol in aspartame decomposes into formaldehyde

Stouffer, D. A Healing Touch approach to scar integration, Healing Touch Newsletter 1998, 8(3). (Data based). RES?
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
It has been observed that a scar can act like a battery and develop a 1.5 volt differential across the scar tissue. This can send a tiny voltage throughout the body and produce pain many physical dysfunctions. Healing Touch may promote scar integration by neutralizing the electrical properties of scar tissue.

Stouffer, D/Duennes, M/Pitman, G. Preliminary Study: Effect of Healing Touch on Body Fluids. RES
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
The objective of the study was to determine if Healing Touch treatments would change the properties of the PH, oxidation-reduction balance (redox) and electrical resistance in body fluids. The procedure involved collecting saliva and urine samples and making a “biological terrain assessment’ using a computer, which could calculate the properties for blood. A treatment and a control group were used in which the treatment group received full body connection and mindclearing and the presence of the Certified Healing Touch Practitioner for the control group. The chronological age of the participant was 60 years, before Healing Touch treatment the mathematically determined biologicalage was 62, and after Healing Touch treatment was 49.

Stouffer, D/ Kaiser, D/ Pitman, G/ Rolf, W. (in press), Electrodermal testing to measure the effect of a Healing Touch treatment, Journal of Holistic Nursing. (Data based). RES METH
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
The objective of the research was to determine if the electrical resistance of the acupuncture points could be used to measure the effect of a Healing Touch treatment. This involved passing a tiny current though neural pathways at the acupuncture point on the hands and feet and measuring the electrical resistance. Six trails were conducted to test this hypothesis. Three of the intervention tests were designed to differentiateemotional and relaxation effects. Readings before, during and after the treatment showed dramatic changes in the electrical resistance that was statistically significant. Inconclusion, it appeared that electrodermal testing by an experienced operator could be used to measure the effect of a bioenergy intervention.

Straneva, J. A. E. Therapeutic Touch and In vitro erythropoiesis (Doctoral dissertation) Bloomingdale, IN: Indiana University School of Nursing 1993. RES

Stress Symptoms in Abused Women. Paper presented at the 8th Nursing Research Pan American Colloquium, Mexico City, 2002. (Data-based). MAR

Sudarsky-Gleiser, Carina Ph.D., Therapists' Experience of Metaphoric Communication in Therapy (Symbols, Counseling), The Ohio State University 1995. Q

Sundblom, D. Markus, Haikonen, Sari et al. The effect of spiritual healing on chronic idiopathic pain - a medical and biological study, Clinical Journal of Pain1994, 10, 286-302. RES

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