We have included a spectrum of reports in our list. The type of report is indicated at the end of each study:

DISC = discussion
META = meta analysis
MAR = marginal value (to save researchers the trouble of hunting these down)
MAR METHODS = a formal research study with seriously flawed methodology
OBS = Observational report (series of cases)
P = popular article
Q = qualitative study
RES = research
SUR = survey


Waechter, RandallL/ Sergio, Lauren. Manipulation of the electromagnetic spectrum via fields projected from human hands: A Qi energy connection?,Subtle Energies, 2002, 13(3), 233-250 (19 refs). RES
ABSTRACT: Three adult males with reported extraordinary Qi energy manipulation abilities projected Qi energy towards copper coils that were designed to measure subtle alterations in the immediate electromagnetic environment. The results indicate that power increased or decreased significantly in the test phase at several frequencies when compared to the control phases. The analysis also indicated that the change in power for these specific frequencies was directional. That is, these changes in power were mostly detected in one versus all three coils simultaneously. Theses results suggest that it is possible for human beings to alter the electromagnetic environment around their hands at will. Specifically, the power seen at certain frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum can be lowered or raised with a Qi Master "emits" Qi energy versus simply holding his hand over a detection device during a control phase.

Walker, Scott et al, Intercessory prayer in the treatment of alcohol abuse and dependence: a pilot investigation, Alternative Therapies 1997, 3(6), 79-86. RES

Wallack, Joseph Michael, Testing for the psychokinetic effect on plants: effect of a ‘laying on’ of hands on germinating corn seed (Master’s thesis) West Georgia College 1982, Summarized in Psychological Reports 1984, 55, 15-18. RES

Wang, K/ Hermann, C, Healing Touch on agitation levels to dementia, Healing Touch Newsletter 1999, 9(3), 3. (Data based). RES?
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
This study investigated the effects of Healing Touch on agitation levels in people with dementia in the Prescott Veteran’s Administration Medical Center, Special Care Unit. Two Healing Touch interventions, unruffling (magnetic clearing) and modified mind clearance were administered. Statistically significant decreases in occurrences of agitated behaviors were noted in all intervention subjects. Psychotropic medication use was also noted to have decreased during the intervention phase. Additionally, participants verbalized the calming effects that the Healing Touch interventions provided them. Physiologic changes noted upon completion of each session were decreased muscle tension, relaxed breathing and a shift to a more peaceful demeanor.

Warber, SL/ Cornelio, D/ Straughn, J/ Kile G. Biofield energy healing from the inside, J Altern Complement Med., 2004, 10(6), 1107-13. RES DISC
OBJECTIVES: Biofield energy healing involves controversial concepts, and although numerous controlled trials have evaluated the effects, little attention has been paid to the phenomenon from the perspective of the therapists themselves. DESIGN: Qualitative research. SETTINGS/LOCATION: Large Midwest metropolitan area. Interviews were generally conducted in the therapists' place of business. SUBJECTS: Experienced biofield energy therapists from several different disciplines. INTERVENTIONS: In-depth semistructured interviews, tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, videotapes of demonstrations. OUTCOME MEASURES: We used a grounded theory approach to uncover relevant dimensions and themes related to the process of biofield energy healing. RESULTS: Major overall themes related to the "nature of energy" and the "healer-client relationship." Seven dimensions of the nature of energy include sources of energy, entities with energy, human energy anatomy, descriptions of energy, movement of energy, action of energy, and perception of energy. The dimensions build on one another to describe an energetic world view. The other major theme, the healer-client relationship, contains the central concept of healing facilitation as the goal of the experience. Compatibility and collaboration are critical to that process, as are creating a sense of trust and adhering to ethical standards. Communication underpins the whole process. CONCLUSIONS: The biofield energy therapists share a common energetic world view, wherein they must surrender to a universal energy while simultaneously creating a therapeutic alliance with the client who is also an active agent in healing process. This understanding has the potential to alter our assumptions about research design in biofield energy healing.

Wardell, DW/ Weymouth, K. Review of studies of Healing Touch, Journal of Nursing Scholarship: Image, 2004, 36(2), 146-154. (Data-based/Peer Reviewed). RES REV

Wardell, DW/ Engebretson, J. Biological correlates of Reiki Touch healing, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 2001, 33(4), 439-445. RES?
BACKGROUND: Despite the popularity of touch therapies, theoretical understanding of the mechanisms of effect is not well developed and there is limited research measuring biological outcomes.
AIMS: The aim of this study was to test a framework of relaxation or stress reduction as a mechanism of touch therapy.
METHODS: The study was conducted in 1996 and involved the examination of select physiological and biochemical effects and the experience of 30 minutes of Reiki, a form of touch therapy. A single group repeated measure design was used to study Reiki Touch’ssm effects with a convenience sample of 23 essentially healthy subjects. Biological markers related to stress-reduction response included state anxiety, salivary IGA and cortisol, blood pressure, galvanic skin response (GSR), muscle tension and skin temperature. Data were collected before, during and immediately after the session.
RESULTS: Comparing before and after measures, anxiety was significantlyreduced, t(22)=2.45, P=0.02. Salivary IgA levels rose significantly, t(19)=2.33, P=0.03, however, salivary cortisol was not statistically significant. There was a significant drop in systolic blood pressure (SBP), F(2, 44) = 6.60, P< 0.01. Skin temperature increased and electromyography (EMG) decreased during treatment, but before and after differences were not significant.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest both biochemical and physiological changes in the direction of relaxation. The salivary IGA findings warrant further study to explore the effects of human TT and humeral immune function.

Wardell, DW/ Engebretson, JC. Ethical principles applied to complementary healing, Journal of Holistic Nursing 2001, 19(4), 318-334: quiz 335-339. (Data based/Peer reviewed). MAR
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
This study explores the ethical approaches and underlying principles in the expectations of three organizations espousing holistic healing and touch therapies (The American Holistic Nurses Association, Healing Touch International, Inc., and Reiki Touch). All groups gave attention to the constructs of non-maleficence, beneficence and autonomy, with a strong emphasis on virtue ethics. The shift in the expression of the principles of paternalism and client agency allowed the healers to employ the therapeutic effects of placebo, suggestion, optimism, hope, and surrender with the avoidance of nocebo effects.

Wardell, DW/ Tan, Gabriel/ Rintala, Diana/ ZhigangDuan. A pilot study of a bio-field therapy for chronic neuropathic pain in spinal cord injury . RES
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the possible role of Healing Touch in modulating chronic neuropathic pain and its associated psychological distress post-spinal cord injury. Twenty-nine patients who met the inclusion criteria at the Spinal Cord Injury Unit of a Veteran’s Affairs Medical Center in Houston Texas were invited to participate of these, 12 agreed (participation rate 41%) for this in-home study. All subjects enrolled completed the study. Subjects were assigned to either the Healing Touch or Guided Progressive Muscle Relaxation. There was a large variation between individuals and groups. There was a significant difference in the Composite of Interference on the Brief Pain Inventory. Fatigue, depression and confusion decreased in the Healing Touch group. Satisfaction with life showed a trend to increase in the Healing Touch group. The qualitative data of the pre and post interview of the HT subjects revealed that two participants reported significant pain reduction. One participant reported initial pain reduction and then a return to previous levels of pain. Another reported overall relaxation but no change in symptoms, and three reported no perceived changes. The expectations (both positive and negative) of the subjects may have influenced the results and these should be measured in future studies.

Wardell, DW. Spirituality in Healing Touch Practitioners. RES
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
A study of over 400 individuals involved in Healing Touch training was undertaken to determine if there was any difference in perception of their spirituality. The study reviewed differences between the levels of training in relation to the measures of spirituality. There was no difference between the nurses and non-nurses on the spiritual scales used. There was a significant difference between the six levels of training in Healing Touch classes completed by the participants with the upper level classes having higher spirituality scores than the lower levels.

Wardell, DW. Spirituality of healing touch participants, Journal of Holistic Nursing2001, 19(1), 71-86. (Data based/Peer reviewed). RES? MAR?
ABSTRACT (partial)
Nurses and nonnurses involved in Healing Touch training were studied to determine if there was a difference in their perception of spirituality. There was no difference between the nurses and nonnurses on either the Spiritual Perspective Scale. . . or the Questionnaire on Spiritual and Religious Attitudes. . . There was a significant difference between the six levels of training in Healing Touch classes completed by the participants on the Spiritual Perspective Scale (F = 7.079, p = .000). The upper-level classes had higher scores than the lower levels. There was a difference on the Questionnaire on Spiritual and Religious Attitudes between levels of instruction completed (F = 3.326, p = .003). This suggests that there is a heightened sense of spiritual awareness in those in the higher levels of the program. It may be that involvement in an energy-based therapy is one way to develop spiritual awareness.

Wardell, DW. The trauma release technique: How it is taught and experienced in Healing Touch, Alternative and Complementary Therapies, 2000, 6(1), 20-27. (Data based). MAR
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
Trauma release is an advanced Healing Touch technique used for assisting individuals to heal from chronic residual pain and is especially applicable when traditional therapies have been unsuccessful. A qualitative study of the teaching done and experiences of participants within this seminar series provides insight into how the technique is used and its benefits. The participants reported release of physical and emotional aspects of the trauma, the creation of a sense of balance, and a sense of change. Of the 12 participants queried one to two months later most experienced a decrease or absence of their pain symptoms and none a worsening of symptoms.

Watkins, Graham K./ Watkins, Anita. Possible PK influence on the resuscitation of anesthetized mice, Journal of Parapsychology 1971, 35(4), 257-272. RES

Watkins, G. K./ Watkins, A. M./ Wells, R. A. Further studies on the resuscitation of anesthetized mice, In: Roll, W. G./ Morris, R. L./ Morris, J. D. (Eds), Research in Parapsychology 1972, Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow 1973, 157-159. RES

Welcher, B/ Kish, J. Reducing pain and anxiety through Healing Touch, Healing Touch Newsletter, 2001, 01(3), 19. (Data based). RES?
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
This study was designed to evaluate the outcomes of a Healing Touch intervention with 138 inpatients. The patients were both male and female with a variety of diagnoses and ranging in age form 18 to 94 years old. After the Healing Touch treatment, the practitioner gave a questionnaire to the patients requesting that the patients retrospectively assess their level of pain and anxiety before the treatment and then assess their present level of pain and anxiety after the treatment using a scale of 1 to 10. Healing Touch significantly reduced both pain and anxiety in this study of hospitalized patients.

Wells, Roger/ Klein, Judith, A replication of a "psychic healing" paradigm,Journal of Parapsychology 1972, 36, 144-147. RES

Wells, Roger/ Watkins, Graham, Linger effects in several PK experiments, In: Morris, J. D./ Roll, W. G./ Morris, R. L. (Eds) Research in Parapsychology 1974, Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow 1975, 143-147. RES

Wendler, M. Cecilia. Effects of Tellington Touch in Healthy Adults Awaiting Venipuncture, Research in Nursing and Health, 2003, 26, 40-52. RES
Many natural-healing modalities administered by professional nurses are provided without adequate scientific scrutiny. Tellington touch (TTouch), a form of gentle phvsical touch originallv developed for the calming of horses, is an emerging nursing intervention. However, the safety and efficacv of human TTouch has not yet been established. The purpose of this study, which used a pretest, posttest repeated-measures control group design, was to identify patterns of mean blood pressure (MBP), heart rate (HR), state anxietv (SA), and procedural pain (PPl in healthv adults receiving a 5-min intervention of TTouch (n=47) just before venipuncture versus a no-touch control group (n=46). There were statistically and clinically significant decreases in the TTouch group in MBP and HR. There were no significant differences between groups in SA and PP. Further research is essential to determine the safety and efficacy of this modality for acutely or critically ill patients.

Wendler, M. Cecilia. Tellington Touch before Venipuncture: An Exploratory Descriptive Study, Holistic Nursing Practice, 2002, 16(4), 51-64. RES
Tellington touch (ttouch) is an emerging natural healing modality used by nurses and other health care providers to communicate caring and connection to clients. This simple-to-Iearn and easy-to-implement form of mindful, gentle physical touch is said to help in diverse areas such as chronic pain management, labor discomfort, and post-injury pain and edema. Despite 15 years of anecdotal evidence outlining reported benefits for humans, no investigation of ttouch has yet been undertaken. This qualitative study initiates a body of knowledge about ttouch by exploring and describing the experience of ttouch when administered to healthy people awaiting a routine venipuncture. The study includes qualitative data from both the participants (n = 47) and the provider (n = 1) and provides essential foundational information regarding the experience of ttouch. Implications for practice and future research are provided. Key words: caring, communication, nursing intervention Tellington touch, touch.

Westerbeke, Patricia/ Gover, John/ Krippner, Stanley, Subjective reactions to the Philippino "healers:" a questionnaire study, In: Morris, J. D./ Roll, W. G./ Morris, R. L. (Eds), Research in Parapsychology 1976, Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow 1977, 70-71. SURV

Wetzel, Wendy. Healing Touch as a nursing intervention: wound infection following cesarean birth an anecdotal case study. CASE
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
This study documents the progress of a patient with a significant wound infection as a consequence of cesarean birth. Along with standard medical care, the patient received Healing Touch treatments. This anecdotal study chronicled how Healing Touch when used in conjunction with traditional medical care, has the potential to increase the rate of wound healing.

Wetzel, Wendy S. Reiki healing: a physiologic perspective, Journal of Holistic Nursing 1989, 7(1), 47-54. Hemoglobin. RES

Weymouth, K. Healing from a personal perspective: Interviews with Certified Healing Touch Practitioners, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center, San Francisco, California, 2002. (Data based). Q

Weymouth, K/ Sandberg-Lewis, S. Comparing the efficacy of Healing Touch and chiropractic adjustment in treating chronic low back pain: A pilot study, Healing Touch Newsletter, 2000, 00(3), 7-8. (Data based). RES
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
This study was undertaken to explore the effectiveness of both Healing Touch and chiropractic treatment in treating chronic low back pain. Twenty people were enrolled and eight Healing Touch treatments were given to each of the ten participants in the Healing Touch group. Each participant experienced some degree of improvement as a result of the treatments from minimal to dramatic. Healing Touch and chiropractic groups had statistically significant decreases in pain, improvement in range of motion, and improvement in orthopedic measurements. There was no difference between Healing Touch and chiropractic in the decrease of pain, range of motion and orthopedic tests. The chiropractic group had increased improvement in quality of life. The conclusions drawn from the study were that Healing Touch stood up well as a treatment modality for chronic low back pain, especially considering the large difference in the length of time of pain was suffered between the Healing Touch and chiropractic groups. Second, it appears likely that for a percentage of chronic low back pain sufferers a combination of treatments would be more beneficial than a single type of treatment.

Wetzel, W. Healing Touch as a nursing intervention: Wound infection following cesarean birth: An anecdotal case study. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 1993, 11(3), 277-285. (Data based/Peer Reviewed). CASE

Wharton, Richard and Lewith, George. Complementary medicine and the general practitioner, British Medical Journal 1986, 292. SURV

Wheeler-Robins, J, Psychoneuroimmunology and Healing Touch in HIV disease. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, 1999. (Date based). RES
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
The purpose of this study was to ascertain the effects of Healing Touch on well-being and neuroendocrine function in individuals living with HIV disease. A total of 27 males completed the 4-week Healing Touch intervention. Well-being was measured bythree well-being and two physiological distress instruments, serum serotonin, salivaryDHEA and cortisol, and a variety of enumerative and functional measures of immune function. There were no significant findings on any of the measures. Study participants indicated the positive effects they experienced seemed more directly related to stress reduction and spiritual growth, which were not directly measured.

Wiesendanger, Harald/ Werthmuller, Lucius/ Reuter Katja/ Walach Harald. Chronically I11 Patients Treated by Spiritual Healing Improve in Quality of Life: Results of a Randomized Waiting-List Controlled Study, The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 2001, 7(1), 45-51. RES

Wilkinson, Dawn S/ Knox, Pamela L/ Chatman, James E/ Johnson, Terrance L/ Barbour, Nilufer/ Myles, Yvonne/ Reel, Antonio. The Clinical Effectiveness of Healing Touch, The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 2002, 8(1), 33-47. MAR
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
The objective of this study was to determine the clinical effectiveness of Healing Touch on variables assumed to be related to health enhancement and to determine whether practitioner-training level moderates treatment effectiveness. Twenty-two participants received either no treatment, a standard Healing Touch or standard Healing Touch plus music and guided imagery. The results indicated that clients of practitioners with more training experienced statistically significant positive secretory IgA (an immune function indicator) change over the Healing Touch treatment series, while clients of practitioners with less experience did not. Clients reported a statistically significant reduction of stress level after both Healing Touch conditions. Pain relief was reported by six of the eleven participants experiencing pain. 
OBJECTIVES: (1) to determine the clinical effectiveness of Healing Touch (HT) on variables assumed to be related to health enhancement; (2) to determine whether practitioner training level moderates treatment effectiveness. 
DESIGN: Mixed-method repeated measures design with quasi-experimental and naturalistic approaches, paired with nomothetic and idiographic analyses. 
SETTING / LOCATION: Practitioner's offices or client's home. SUBJECTS: Twenty-two (22) clients who had never experienced HT. 
INTERVENTIONS: Three treatment conditions: no treatment (NT), HT only (standard HT care), and HT+ (Standard HT care plus music plus guided imagery).
OUTCOME MEASURES: Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) concentrations in saliva, self-reports of stress levels, client perceptions of health enhancement, and qualitative questionnaires about individual effects. 
RESULTS: Clients of practitioners with more training experienced statistically significant positive sIgA change over the HT treatment series, while clients of practitioners with less experience did not. Clients reported a statistically significant reduction of stress level after both HT conditions. Perceived enhancement of health was reported by 13 of 22 clients (59%). Themes of relaxation, connection, and enhanced awareness were identified in the qualitative analysis of the HT experience. Pain relief was reported by 6 of 11 clients (55%) experiencing pain. 
CONCLUSIONS: The data support the clinical effectiveness of HT in health enhancement, specifically for raising sIgA concentrations, lowering stress perceptions and relieving pain. The evidence indicates that positive responses were not exclusively as a result of placebo, that is, client beliefs, expectations, and behaviors regarding HT.  RES

Wilkinson, D. The clinical effectiveness of Healing Touch on HIV infected individuals. Unpublished dissertation, Tennessee State University, Nashville, 2002. (Data based). RES?
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
This exploratory study investigated the clinical effectiveness of Healing Touch on HIV-infected individuals for increasing secretory Immunoglobulin A (IgA) in salvia and quality of life. Participants had two no-treatment control conditions preceding a series of four Healing Touch treatment conditions. A small sample of 27% of the participants met the criteria for positive response, one on the sIgA measure and three on quality of life. All positive responders were HIV symptomatic and showed evidence of change over the treatment series, as compared to change over a single Healing Touch treatment. HealingTouch could not be isolated as solely responsible for the positive changes.

Wilkinson, D. Effectiveness and efficacy of Healing Touch: Phase 1. Unpublished master’s thesis, Tennessee State University, Nashville, 1998. (Data based). RES?

Wilkinson, Terri Lynn. The Effect of Therapeutic Touch on the Experience of Acute Pain in Postoperative Laminectomy Patients, MSN, 1997. RES
The purpose of this replication study was to investigate the effect of laminectomy patients. It was hypothesized that subjects treated with therapeutic touch would report less pain than those treated by a mimic intervention. A pretest-posttest control group, experimental design was used. Twenty subjects were randomly assigned to either the therapeutic touch or placebo mimic intervention groups. A visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to measure the subject’s pain before and one hour after treatment. Both groups demonstrated significant decrease in pain following intervention. However, posttest pain scores of the two groups were not significantly different (t=$-$.60, p=$>$.05). The hypothesis, therefore, was not supported. Findings suggest that therapeutic touch and the placebo effect may be two aspects of the same phenomenon. Additionally, the use of one investigator in the administering the treatments may have compromised the validity of the study.  RES

Winstead-Fry, P/ Kijek, J. An Integrative review and meta-analysis of therapeutic touch research. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine 1999, 5(6), 58-60, 62-67. META

Winston, Shirley, Research in Psychic Healing: A Multivariate Experiment (Doctoral dissertation) Union Graduate School, Yellow Springs, OH 1975. Anxiety. RES

Solfvin, J/ Leskowitz, E/Benor, DJ. Questions concerning the work of Daniel P. Wirth. Online at: April 15, 2005. DISC

Woods DL/ Craven RF/ Whitney J. The effect of Therapeutic Touch on behavioral symptoms of persons with dementia, Altern Ther Health Med, 2005, 11(1),66-74. RES
 “Approximately 80% of nursing home residents who suffer from Alzheimer’s disease and related dementia develop behavioral symptoms of dementia. Given the deleterious side effects of pharmacologic therapy in this population there is an urgent need for clinical trials of nonpharmacologic interventions…
METHOD: A randomized, double-blind, three-group experimental study: experimental (therapeutic touch), placebo (placebo therapeutic touch), and control (usual care). Fifty-seven residents, aged 67 to 93 years, exhibiting behavioral symptoms of dementia, were randomized to one of the three groups within each of three Special Care Units within three Long Term care facilities in a western Canadian province. Behavioral observation was completed every 20 minutes from 8:00 AM to 6:00 PM for three days pre-intervention and for three days post-intervention by trained observers who were blind to group assignment.
    The intervention consisted of therapeutic touch given twice daily for 5-7 minutes for three days… The main outcome variable was overall behavioral symptoms of dementia, consisting of six categories of behaviors: manual manipulation (restlessness), escape restraints, searching and wandering, tapping and banging, pacing and walking, and vocalization.
RESULTS: … a significant difference [p = 0.033-.036] in overall behavioral symptoms of dementia, manual manipulation and vocalization when the experimental group was compared to the placebo and control groups. The experimental (significant) was more effective in decreasing behavioral symptoms of dementia than usual care, while the placebo group indicated a decreasing trend in behavioral symptoms of dementia compared to usual care.
CONCLUSIONS: Therapeutic touch offers a nonpharmacological, clinically relevant modality that could be used to decrease behavioral symptoms of dementia, specifically manual manipulation (restlessness) and vocalization, two prevalent behaviors. “

Woods, Diana Lynn/ Dimond, Margaret. The Effects of Therapeutic Touch on agitated behavior and cortisol in persons with Alzheimer’s Disease, Biological Research For Nursing, 2002, 4(2), 104-114. RES
Agitated behavior in persons with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) presents a challenge to current interventions. Recent developments in neuroendocrinology suggest that changes in the hypothalamic-pituaitary adrenal (HPA) axis alter the responses of persons with AD to stress. Given the deleterious effects of pharmacological interventions in this vulnerable population, it is essential to explore noninvasive treatments for their potential to decrease a hyperresponsiveness to stress and indirectly decrease detrimental cortisol levels. This within-subject, interrupted time-series study was conducted to test the efficacy of therapeutic touch on decreasing the frequency of agitated behavior and salivary and urine cortisol levels in persons with AD. The subjects who were 71 to 84 years old and resided in a special care unity were observed every 20 minutes for 10 hours a day, were monitored 24 hours a day for physical activity and had samples for salivary and urine cortisol taken daily. The study occurred in 4 phases: 1) baseline (4 days), 2) treatment (therapeutic touch for 5 to 7 minutes 2 times a day for 3 days), 3) posttreatment (11 days), and 4) post- “wash-out” (3 days). An analysis of variance for repeated measures indicated a significant decrease in overall agitated behaviour and 2 specific behaviors, vocalization and pacing or walking, during treatment and post-treatment. A decreasing trend over time was noted for salivary and urine cortisol. Although this study does not provide direct clinical evidence to support dysregulation in the HPA axis, it does suggest that environmental and behavioral interventions such as therapeutic touch have the potential to decrease vocalization and pacing, 2 prevalent behaviors, and may mitigate cortisol levels in persons with AD.

Woods, Diana Lynn. The Effect of Therapeutic Touch on Glucocorticoids and Agitated Behaviour in Individuals with Dementia of the Alzheimer Type, PhD, University of Washington, 1999. RES

Woods, D. L/ Rapp, C. G/ Beck, C. S. Escalation/de-escalation patterns of behavioral symptoms of persons with dementia. Aging Mental Health 2004, 8(2), 126-132. RES?
Woods, D. L/ Heitkemper, M/ Elmore, S/ Dimond, M/ Lentz, M/ Diaz, J. Therapeutic Touch effect on agitation and cortisol in Alzheimer’s disease. Communicating Nursing Research 2000, 33, 189. RES

Woods, D. L., Craven, R., & Whitney, J. (1996). The effect of Therapeutic Touch on disruptive behaviors of individuals with dementia of the Alzheimer type.Alternative Therapies, 2,  95. RES? Q?

Woods Smith, D/ Arnstein, P/ Cowan-Rosa, K. C/ Wells-Federman, C. Effects of integrating Therapeutic Touch into a cognitive behavioral pain treatment program. Journal of Holistic Nursing 2002, 20(4), 367-387. DISC? Q?

Wright, S.M. Validity of the human energy field assessment form.  Western Journal of Nursing Research 1991, 13, 635-647. RES ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT

Wright, S.M. Development and construct validity of the energy field assessment form.  Rush University College of Nursing 1988. RES ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT

Wyatt, G. K. Therapeutic touch: Promoting and assessing conceptual change among health care professionals.  (Doctoral dissertation). Michigan State University 1988. Q? SURV?


Yan, Xin/ Lin, Hui/ Li, Hongmei/ Traynor-Kaplan, Alexis/ Xia, Zhen-Qin/ Lu, Feng/ Fang, Yi/ Dao, Ming. Structure and property changes in certain materials influenced by the external qi of qigong, Material Research Innovations, 1999, 2(6), 349-359. RES
Temperature, time, pressure (or stress) are considered important factors in changing the Gibbs free energy and optimizing the structure and properties of materials during materials processing. The effects of some other variables, including the magnetic field, electrical field, electromagnetic and ultrasonic radiation, and chemical reactions have also been well characterized. These factors have been widely applied in materials processing, and their limitations have been discovered. Thus additional factors and innovative techniques are constantly being sought to overcome those limitations. This paper presents such an innovative technique called qigong. Three sets of materials-related experiments conducted by qigong doctor Yan and his collaborators are described in which for the first time the effects of qi on inanimate matter samples with no mechanical or electrical connection to the system are revealed on laboratory instruments. These experiments show that external qi of qigong produces significant structural changes in water and aqueous solutions, alters the phase behavior of dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline (DPPC) liposomes, and enables the growth of Fab protein crystals. These results demonstrate objective phenomena resulting from qigong and the potential of this ancient technology system, even in material processing. Important attributes of qi are summarized and the possible implications of these results from the materials perspective are discussed.

Yount, G/ Solfvin, J/ Moore, D/ Schlitz, M/ Reading, M/ Aldape K/ Qian Y. In vitro test of external Qigong,  Biomed Central Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2004, Mar 15, 4(1), 5RES
PMID: 15102336 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
BACKGROUND: Practitioners of the alternative medical practice 'external Qigong' generally claim the ability to emit or direct "healing energy" to treat patients. We investigated the ability of experienced Qigong practitioners to enhance the healthy growth of cultured human cells in a series of studies, each following a rigorously designed protocol with randomization, blinding and controls for variability. METHODS: Qigong practitioners directed healing intentionality toward normal brain cell cultures in a basic science laboratory. Qigong treatments were delivered for 20 minutes from a minimum distance of 10 centimeters. Cell proliferation was measured by a standard colony-forming efficiency (CFE) assay and a CFE ratio (CFE for treated samples/CFE for sham samples) was the dependent measure for each experiment. RESULTS: During a pilot study (8 experiments), a trend of increased cell proliferation in Qigong-treated samples (CFE Qigong/sham ratios > 1.0) was observed (P = 0.162). In a formal study (28 experiments), a similar trend was observed, with Qigong-treated samples showing on average more colony formation than sham samples (P = 0.036). In a replication study (60 experiments), no significant difference between Qigong-treated samples and sham samples was observed (P = 0.465). CONCLUSION: We observed an apparent increase in the proliferation of cultured cells following external Qigong treatment by practitioners under strictly controlled conditions, but we did not observe this effect in a replication study. These results suggest the need for more controlled and thorough investigation of external Qigong before scientific validation is claimed.


Zachariae, R/ Hejgaard, L/ Zachariae, C/ Vreth, M/ Bang, B / Skov, L. The effect of spiritual healing on in vitro tumour cell proliferation and viability - an experimental study, British Journal of Cancer (2005) 93, 538-543. doi: I 0.1 038fsj.bjc.6602749 Published online 23 August 2005. RES
Alternative treatments such as spiritual healing and prayer are increasingly popular, especially among patients with life-threatening diseases such as cancer. According to theories of spiritual healing, this intervention is thought to influence living cells and organisms independently of the recipient's conscious awareness of the healer's intention. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that spiritual healing will reduce proliferation and viability of two cancer cell lines in vitro. Three controlled experiments were conducted with three different healers and randomized allocation of cells to five different doses of healing or control. Researchers conducting the assays and statistical analyses were blinded to the experimental conditions. Main outcome measures were MTT viability, 3H-thymidine incorporation and counts of an adherent human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7), and a nonadherent mouse B-Iymphoid cell line (HB94). Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) revealed no significant main or dose-related effects of spiritual healing compared to controls for either of the two cell lines or any of the assays (P-values between 0.09 and 0.96). When comparing healing and control across all three experimental days, doses, assays, and cells, 34 (51.6%) of 66 independent comparisons showed differences in the hypothesized direction (P = 0.90). The average effect size across cell lines, days, assays, and doses approached zero (Cohen's d = -0.0 I). The results do not support previous reports of beneficial effects of spiritual healing on malignant cell growth in vitro. Reported beneficial effects of spiritual healing on the well-being of cancer patients seem more likely to be mediated by psychosocial and psychophysiological effects of the healer-patient relationship.

Zambetis, D. B. (1996). Attitudes of women with breast cancer toward Therapeutic Touch (Master’s thesis), Michigan State University 1996. Q? SURV?

Ziembroski, J/ Gilbert, N/ Bossarte, R/ Guldberg, G. Healing Touch and hospice care: examining outcomes at the end of life, Alternative & Complementary Therapies 2003, 9(3), 146-151. (Data based/Peer Reviewed). RES?

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