We have included a spectrum of reports in our list. The type of report is indicated at the end of each study:

DISC = discussion
META = meta analysis
MAR = marginal value (to save researchers the trouble of hunting these down)
MAR METHODS = a formal research study with seriously flawed methodology
OBS = Observational report (series of cases)
P = popular article
Q = qualitative study
RES = research
SUR = survey


MacDonald, R./ Dakin, H. S./ Hickman, J. L. Preliminary studies with three alleged ‘psychic healers,’ In: Morris, J. D./ Roll, W. G./ Morris, R. L (Eds), Research in Parapsychology 1976, Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow 1977. RES

MacNeil, Melanie Sue. Therapeutic Touch and Tension Headaches: A Rogerian Study. MS, D’Youville College, 1995. Q
This descriptive. qualitative study investigated the effect of therapeutic touch (TT) on the pain experience of adult tension headache sufferers. Subjects were randomly assigned into control and experimental groups. Rogers' science of unitary human beings was used to study this phenomenon. An interview schedule adapted from the Carboni (1992) Unitary Measurement Tool was administered before and after TT. A scientific random sampling of 10 headache pain sufferers was chosen from a chiropractic clinic in southeastem Ontario. A qualitative. descriptive analysis was applied to data from experimental (TT recipients) and control (simulated TT recipients) groups for a research report. Data collected have determined that one application of TT was useful for reducing the pain of tension headache sufferers. The key results were that one application of therapeutic touch reduced tension headache pain in all subjects who received the authentic treatment.

Madrid, M/Winstead-Fry, P. Nursing research on the health patterning modalities of Therapeutic Touch and imagery. Nursing Science Quarterly 2001, 14(3),187. DISC?

Malinski, V. M. Research issues. Nursing theory-based research on Therapeutic Touch and imagery. Nursing Science Quarterly 2001, 14(3), 187.  DISC

Markides, Emily Joannides, Complementary Energetic Practices: An Exploration Into the World of Maine Women Healers (Alternative Therapies, Healing), (dissertation) University of Maine 1996. Q

Marsilia, Stephanie Whigham. Measuring the effect of touch and close proximity. MS, dissertation, Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas 1998. (TOUCH, NOT HEALING)
Positive health benefits are espoused by practitioners of therapeutic touch, but may be accounted for purely by individuals' reactions to touch or close proximity. This study directly compared the effects of close proximity and touch against a control condition, using level of contiguity and presence or absence of a cognitive suggestion as independent variables. The dependent measures included physiographic records of galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate (HR), scores on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults (STAI), and task performance. Subjects were 90 female college students. Analyses of variance indicated that for GSR, a significant interaction existed between time periods, contiguity, and suggestion $(P < 0.001).$ For HR, there was a significant interaction between time periods and contiguity $(P = 0.0012).$ No significant differences in state anxiety or task performance were found. Arousal theory (M. L. Patterson, 1976) partly accounts for some results, with cardiac deceleration from an outward focus of attention (B. C. Lacey & J. i. Lacey, 1978; J. R. Jennings & S. W. Hall, 1980) better explaining the majority of results. With most of the significant differences occurring in the first 2 minutes of manipulation, no evidence emerged to support long-lasting health benefits from touch or proximity.

Matthews, Dale A/ Marlowe, Sally M/ MacNutt, Francis S. Effects of Intercessory Prayer on Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis, Southern Medical Journal, 2000, 93(12), 1177-1186. RES
BACKGROUND:Many individuals pray during times of illness, but the clinical effects of prayer are not well-understood. 
METHODS: We prospectively studied a cohort of 40 patients (mean age, 62 years; IOO% white; 82% women) at a private rheumatology practice. AIl had class II or III rheumatoid arthritis and took stable doses of antirheumatic medications. All received a 3-day intervention, including 6 hours of education and 6 hours of direct-contact intercessory prayer. Nineteen randomly selected sample patients had 6 months of daily, supplemental intercessory prayer by individuals located elsewhere. Ten arthritis-specific outcome variablewere measured at baseline and at 3-month intervals for I year. 
RESULTS: Patients receiving in-person intercessory prayer showed significant overall improvement during 1-year follow-up. No additional effects from supplemental, distant, intercessory prayer were found. 
CONCLUSIONS: In-person intercessory prayer may be a useful adjunct to standard medical care for certain patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Supplemental, distant intercessory prayer offers no additional benefits.

Matthews, William J/ Conti, James M/ Sireci, Stephen G. The Effects of Intercessory Prayer, Positive Visualization, and Expectancy on the Well-Being of Kidney Dialysis Patients,Alternative Therapies, 2001, 7(5), 42-52.  RES
CONTEXT: Little replicable empirical evidence on the effectiveness of prayer is available.
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of intercessory prayer, positive visualization, and outcome expectancy on a wide range of medical and psychological measure in critically ill patients.
DESIGN: 2x3 (expectancy x treatment) factorial study.
PARTICIPANTS: 95 adult male and female volunteer hemodialysis subjects with end-stage renal disease from an outpatient clinic in Miami, Fla.
INTERVENTION: Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of the 6 treatment conditions.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A total of 20 independent measures (10 medically based and 10 psychological) were used to assess the subjects’ overall well-being. Analysis of covariance was used to control for pretreatment differences between groups.
RESULTS: Subjects who expected to receive intercessory prayer reported feeling significantly better than did those who expected to receive positive visualization (F 1.93 = 5.42; P<.02). No other statistically significant main effects of interactions were found for either expectancy, intercessory prayer, or positive visualization on the remaining dependent measures. Analysis of effect sizes on all dependent measures failed to indicate even a small magnitude of effect for intercessory prayer as contrasted with expectancy on the medical or psychological variables.
CONCLUSIONS: The effects of intercessory prayer and transpersonal positive visualization cannot be distinguished from the effect of expectancy. Therefore, those 2 interventions do not appear to be effective treatments.

Matonti, Rosa. Utilization of Therapeutic Touch in Clients Diagnosed with Chronic Pain, MSN, dissertation, University of Nevada, Las Vegas 1998. RES
Chronic pain is one of the most pervasive and expensive health care problems in society today. Fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis are chronic disease states which currently have no cure. A common complaint among these patients is constant and unremitting pain, which often worsens with inactivity. At this time treatment for both disease processes is essentially palliative, supportive and aimed at symptom relief.
A quasi experimental design was used to determine if there were any significant differences in pain perception between person with FM or RA receiving therapeutic (TT) and placebo treatment (PT). sixty-one subjects served as their own control. Using a vertical visual analogue scale, pain was measured pre- and post-treatment. It was noted that the data were skewed and had a bimodal distribution. Therefore, the nonparametric tests of Wilcoxon Ranks Test and the Chi Square 2 x 2 Test of independence were done. The hypothesis, that patients diagnosed with FM and RA would demonstrate significant decreases in pain (p $<$.05) following TT when compared to PT, was not supported (p = .082).

McAdams, K. The Effects of Healing Touch on Cardiovascular and Oxygenation Variables in Critically Ill Patients. Unpublished master’s thesis, The University of Texas Health Science Center Houston, 1996. (Data-based). RES
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to examine the effects of Healing Touch in comparison to presence in critically ill patients. Twenty-five patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit were studied. Cardiovascular variables (heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial blood pressure) and oxygenation variables were collected pre and post both Healing Touch and presence. The findings of the study indicated that there was a significant difference for diastolic blood pressure for the group who received Healing Touch first as compared to the subjects who received presence first. There was a tendency for the cardiovascular outcomes to show the greatest decrease for the intervention of Healing Touch as compared to presence but they did not show clinical significance.

McCaffrey, Anne M/ Eisenberg, David M/ Legedza, Anna T. R/ Davis, Roger B/ Phillips, Russell S.
The Effect of Intercessory Prayer on Counseling Outcome
 Survey shows 1/3 of people use prayer for health
In a national survey on use of prayer in 1998 of 2055 people (with a 60% weighted response rate)
 35% of respondents used prayer for health concerns. Of these,
      75% prayed for wellness in general
      22% prayed for specific medical conditions. Of these,
              69% found prayer very helpful
Factors independently associated with increased use of prayer (P<.05) included age over 33 years (age 34-53 years; age 54 years: female sex; education beyond high school; and having depression, chronic headaches, back and/or neck pain, digestive problems, or allergies. 
Only 11% of respondents using prayer discussed it with their physicians.

Survey of prayer for health concerns: Results of a national survey on prevalence and patterns of use  Arch Intern Med. 2004, 164, 858-862. SURV
BACKGROUND:  Prayer is a common practice in the United States, yet little is known about the prevalence and patterns of use of prayer for health concerns.
ObjectiveTo determine the prevalence and patterns of use of prayer for health concerns.
METHODS:  We conducted a national survey in 1998 (N = 2055, 60% weighted response rate) on use of prayer. Data were also collected on sociodemographics, use of conventional medicine, and use of complementary and alternative medical therapies. Factors associated with the use of prayer were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression.
RESULTS:  We found that 35% of respondents used prayer for health concerns; 75% of these prayed for wellness, and 22% prayed for specific medical conditions. Of those praying for specific medical conditions, 69% found prayer very helpful. Factors independently associated with increased use of prayer (P<.05) included age older than 33 years (age 34-53 years: odds ratio [OR], 1.6 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3-2.1]; age >=54 years: OR, 1.5 [95% CI, 1.1-2.0]); female sex (OR, 1.4 [95% CI, 1.1-1.7]); education beyond high school (OR, 1.5 [95% CI, 1.2-1.8]); and having depression, chronic headaches, back and/or neck pain, digestive problems, or allergies. Only 11% of respondents using prayer discussed it with their physicians.
CONCLUSIONS:  An estimated one third of adults used prayer for health concerns in 1998. Most respondents did not discuss prayer with their physicians. Prayer was used frequently for common medical conditions, and users reported high levels of perceived helpfulness.
From the Division for Research and Education in Complementary and Integrative Medical Therapies, Osher Institute, Harvard Medical School, and the Division of General Medicine and Primary Care, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Mass. The authors have no relevant financial interest in this article.

Survey of Physicians' Views on Miracles
A national survey of 1,087 physicians was conducted by HCD Research and the Louis Finkelstein Institute for Religious and Social Studies in December 2004 to determine physicians' views of faith, prayer, and miracles. Click on a question number to view the survey results: SURV

McBride, J. Lebron/ Arthur, Gary/ Brooks, Robin/ Pilkington, Lloyd. The relationship between a patient’s spirituality and health experiences, Family Medicine, February 1998, 122-126 RES
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The relationship between spirituality and health is a new frontier in medicine. This study is a preliminiary investigation into the relationship between a patient’s experience of overall health, physical pain, and intrinsic spirituality. 
METHODS: We used a stratified, random sample of 462 patients at a family practice residency clinic. The Index of Core Spiritual Experiences (INSPIRIT) measured intrinsic spirituality, and Dartmouth Primary Care Cooperative Charts measured overall health and pain. Pearson correlations tested the association between health, pain and spirituality. Patient scores on the INSPIRIT were then placed into three groups (high, medium, and low levels of intrinsic spirituality). ANOVA tested for significant differences in health and pain. 
RESULTS: We collected information from 442 of the patients surveyed (95%). We found significant correlation between patient health and spirituality. Significant differences were also found in both overall health and physical pain, based on the three levels of spirituality. Gender differences were only significant for overall health, not for patient pain. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest an association between intrinsic spirituality and a patient’s experience of health and pain. Assessment of spiritually may be important for family physicians to consider as a supplement to patient interviews.

McCormack, Guy LouisThe relationship of non-contact therapeutic touch to pain intensity, absorption, and health belief in an elderly population. Ph.D. dissertation, Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center, US – California 1999. DAl-B 62102, p. 825, Aug 2001 DISC
This study investigated the effects of non-contact therapeutic touch (NCTT) on pain intensity, the relationship of NCTT to absorption and health belief in a hospitalized elderly population. A pretest posttest experimental design was used. A sample of 90 elderly hospitalized participants was randomly assigned to control, sham, and experimental groups. The Memorial Pain Assessment Card (MP AC) was used to assess pain intensity, mood, and pain relief The Tellegen Absorption scale was used to evaluate levels of absorption or openness to experience in all participants. The Health Attribution Test was used to determine categories of health belief. Pulse rate and pupil size was measured to determine degrees of relaxation response. 
The data were analyzed using chi-square, the Analysis of Variance (ANOV A), Pearson product-moment correlation, t Test, and the post-hoc Bonferroni Correction. Participants who received NCTT experienced a statistically significant reduction of pain when compared to the sham and control groups. Absorption levels and health belief profiles were not significantly related to measures used to evaluate the reduction in pain intensity. Non-contact therapeutic touch appeared to be clinically effective in reducing pain intensity in the elderly population by some mechanism that is independent of absorption or health belief

McDonough-Means, S./ Bell, I./ Edde, O., et al. Efficacy of Healing Touch in stressed neonates. This study was funded by the National Institutes of Health and was conducted at the University of Arizona Medical Center Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. RES
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
Infants received Healing Touch treatment to determine if it would increase recovery reflected in physiological and biological parameters. The final results have not been reported. Comments from the practitioners in the study included that by the 3rdday they saw a trend for the babies to exhibit more self–regulatory behaviors, be less stressed by care activity, and to go into deeper states of sleep after the sessions. Nurses’ comments include noticing a difference to “ this is a totally different baby!”

Meehan, T.C.  Therapeutic touch and postoperative pain: A Rogerian research study.  Nursing Science Quarterly 1993, 6(2), 69-78. RES

Meehan, T.C. The effect of Therapeutic Touch on postoperative pain. Pain, Supplement 1990, p.149. RES
Merritt, P. Effects of Healing Touch and other complementary therapies on diabetes. (Abstract). Healing Touch International Research Survey. Lakewood CO: Healing Touch International, Inc. (Data-based). RES

Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
A combination of Healing Touch, massage, and reflexology were tested in diabetic patients. Fingerstick blood sugar tests and biofeedback measures were obtained pre and post treatment. There was a 70% decrease in blood sugar (when using combined therapies) by 38 points and 77% of the subjects receiving Healing Touch had warming of their hands by biofeedback estimation, which suggests improved circulation.

Merritt, P/ Randall, D. The effect of healing touch and other forms of energy work on cancer pain. [Abstract]. Healing Touch International Research Survey. Lakewood CO: Healing Touch International, Inc., 2002. [Data-based]. RES?

Mersmann, C. A.  Therapeutic Touch and milk let down in mothers of non-nursing preterm infants (Doctoral dissertation) New York University 1993. RES

Metta, Louis (Pseud.), Psychokinesis on Lepidoptera larvae, Journal of Parapsychology 1972, 36, 213-221.0006. RES

Metzker, Jean A/ Leigh, Geoffrey K. Short-term longitudinal study of energy fields in infants and young children, Subtle Energies & Energy Medicine 2004, 15(2), 117. RES
 “The purpose of this longitudinal observational study of infant's and children's energy fields was to explore the nature and development of the human energy field (HEF) during infancy and early childhood. Previous studies of the HEF have focused primarily on adults, with only inferences on the field during early development. Only one study has actually measured HEF during childhood. Therefore, the intention of this study was to develop an approach to observation with quantitative and qualitative analysis using repeated observations of subjects over a two year period. Initially, the sample (N = 19) consisted of three age groups of approximately 6, 30, and 54-month-old children. During the third wave of data, seven more infants were added to the sample to increase confidence in findings across ages… The observations were conducted approximately one year apart. The first observation primarily was conducted live, and the second and third observations were taken from videotape of the children… Consistently, density of the field and width of the field were inversely related to the amount of light or translucency in the field. In addition, it was found that density was strongly correlated to the amount of energy in the field and the velocity, as was the width of the field. Shapes also were correlated with other shapes observed in the field, but only the ring and overall quality of the field were correlated with age. These findings are discussed in terms of other work on children and future work needed in this area.”

Miller, Robert N. The positive effect of prayer on plants, Psychic 1972, 3(5), 24-25. RES

Miller, Robert N. Study of remote mental healing, Medical Hypotheses 1982, 8, 481-490. (Also reviewed briefly In: Maddock, Peter, International Parascience Institute: Toronto and London Conferences 1981, Parapsychology Review 1982, 13(4), 7). Hypertension. RES

Misra, M. M. The effects of Therapeutic Touch on menstruation (Master’s thesis) Long Beach, CA: California State University 1994. RES

Mizra, Dmitri G./ Kartsev, V. I., Mental influence on grey mice exposed to lethal doses of ionizing radiation (May/ Vilenskaya, Subtle Energies 1992. RES

Mitchell, Annie, Researching healing: a psychologist's perspective, J. Alternative and Complementary Medicine (UK) 2000, 6(2), 181-186. Q

Mooney, Sharon Fish. Worldviews in conflict: A historical and sociological analysis of the controversy surrounding therapeutic touch in nursing. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Rochester School of Nursing, United States 2205, DAI-B 66f03, p. 1398, Sep 2005DIS
Complementary, non-traditional nursing practices involving the hands have become increasingly popular in recent years. Therapeutic touch (TT) is one such practice that also has been the subject of a heated controversy that rivals debates that swirled around other nontraditional health-related modalities in prior centuries, for example mesmerism, chiropractic, and homeopathy. 
TT is rooted and grounded in a variety of religio-philosophic traditions that have contributed to its development as well as to the debate surrounding it. The controversy concerning TT is primarily related to a clash of world views or sets of assumptions held about the nature of reality. TT appeals to what proponents believe is a deeper level of reality and to other orders of experience beyond concepts of orthodox science for its conceptual framework and supposed mechanism of operation. Yet, paradoxically, there is also an appeal to the science of quantum physics for substantiation of TT's theoretical base and to classical scientific research methodology for confirmatory evidence of research and practice claims. 
Research methodology included an exploration of primary and secondary print resources accompanied by an analysis of various thought-collectives of people holding different worldviews who have been engaged in the controversy surrounding TT. Both nursing and popular journal articles, letters to the editor onursing journals, texts on the early history of healing in various cultures, and manuscripts and journals from the Theosophical Society were primary sources of information. 
The practice of TT appears to hold out the hope of a monistic solution and a harmonial answer to the fragmentation of personhood in a world of expanding medical technology and also appears to provide a uniquely sanctioned role to female empowerment. To many nurses, TT offers an appealing cosmology within a humanistic and highly ritualistic context that weds science, Eastern religion, and Western occultism into a type of" spiritual science," while at the same time raising questions and issues in the philosophy of science that include the explanation and nature of scientific laws, the nature and status of theoretical entities, the relation of theory to interventions, the problem of verification of evidence, and ethical issues related to informed consent. 

Moore T. Best practice guidelines: an invitation to reflect on Therapeutic Touch practice, J Nurs Care Qual., 2005, 20(1), 90-4. MAR
Best practice guidelines can support nurses in providing consistent, evidence-based quality care. This article describes the values and beliefs underlying a best practice guideline for client-centered care and the process used by the author to translate this guideline into reflective questions specific to Therapeutic Touch practice. Applying best practice guidelines in this way, to enhance reflection on a particular aspect of practice, can "bring them to life," facilitating implementation and allowing new possibilities to emerge for improving client care.

Moreland, (Layte) K. The lived experience of receiving the Chakra connection of women with breast cancer who are receiving chemotherapy: a phenomenological study. Healing Touch Newsletter, 1998,  8(3), 3-5. (Data-based). Q
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
The study explored the experience of receiving the chakra connection in women undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer and compared these themes to those in the Therapeutic Touch literature. The six participants were asked to “describe your experience of receiving the touch therapy. Share your thoughts, perceptions and feelings about the experience with as much detail as possible”. The women received Healing Touch during intravenous chemotherapy. Overall, the experience was holistic and caring. It was reported to altered the participants’ perception of self, time and the environment thereby facilitating “getting through” the experience of the intravenous chemotherapy.

Movaffaghi Z/ Hasanpoor/ Farsi M/ Hooshmand P/ Abrishami F. Effects of Therapeutic Touch on blood hemoglobin and hematocrit level, J Holist Nurs., 2006, 24(1), 41-8. RES
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic Touch (TT) is a widely used complementary therapy. This study investigated the effects of TT on hemoglobin and hematocrit level in students who were basically healthy. Method: The volunteers with a hemoglobin level less than 12 grams per deciliter (g/dl) were randomly assigned to three groups of TT, mimic therapeutic touch (MT), and control. Blood samples were collected before the first treatment and again a week after the last one and measurements were taken. Results: TT increased the level of hemoglobin (.99 .13 g/dl) and hematocrit (2.82 .43%) significantly. MT also increased the level of hemoglobin (.55 .11 g/dl) and hematocrit (2.75 .44%) significantly. No significant changes were found in the control group. TT increased hemoglobin more effectively than MT (p< .05). Conclusions: Significant changes of both variables in TT and MTgroups suggest that more careful precision might be needed while selecting individuals as sham therapists in further experiments.

Muehsam, David al, Effects of qigong on cell-free myosin phosphorylation: preliminary experiments, Subtle Energies 1994, 5(1),93-104. RES

Mueller Hinze, Maxine Louise. The Effects of Therapeutic Touch and Acupressure on Experimentally-induced Pain, PhD, The University of Texas at Austin, 1988. RES
The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological and psychological effects of therapeutic touch and acupressure on experimentally-induced ischemic pain. A two-way factorial 4 x 3 (treatment by time) repeated measures design was used. There were four treatment groups (1) therapeutic touch, (2) acupressure, (3) placebo-attention, mock TENS, and (4) no-treatment control, and three time periods (1) baseline, (2) pain, and (3) recovery. The sample consisted of 48 healthy volunteer female subjects who met selected criteria. Pain was induced by using a tourniquet test applied to the non-dominant upper arm. Descriptive data were assessed at the beginning of the study. Anxiety was measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) before and after the study. Seven dependent variables were measured repeatedly at 2-minute intervals throughout the time periods: oxygen consumption, heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, diastollic blood pressure, pain sensation, and pain distress. Physiological measurements were recorded by using a Grass model 70 polygraph and a Waters Oxygen Consumption Computer. Pain sensation and distress were rated on a 0-10 scale. A repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. The MANOV A revealed a significant time effect and a significant treatment by time effect. Individual factorial ANOVAS, one for each dependent variable, revealed significant time effects for all variables. A significant treatment by time effect was noted for oxygen consumption. Post hoc analyses using Least Significant Differences indicated a significant difference (decrease) in the oxygen consumption usage of the placebo-attention group when compared to the no-treatment control, therapeutic touch and acupressure groups. There was also a significant difference (decrease) in the oxygen consumption usage of the acupressure group when compared to the no-treatment control group. An analysis of covariance revealed no differences in the pre- and post-anxiety levels among the groups. Although the pain distress ratings were no statistically different among the groups, the therapeutic touch and acupressure groups reported higher perception of effectiveness scores and a greater willingness to receive future treatment than did the placebo-attention group.

Munson, R. J. The effects of PK on rye seeds (Abstract), Journal of Parapsychology 1979, 43, 45. RES


Nash, Carroll B. Test of psychokinetic control of bacterial mutation, Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 1984, 78(2), 145-152. RES

Nash, C. B./ Nash, C. S. The effect of paranormally conditioned solution on yeast fermentation, Journal of Parapsychology 1967, 31, 314. RES

Nebauer, Monica, Healing through Therapeutic Touch: one person's perspective, in: Gaut, D.A./Boykin, A., Caring as Healing, New York: National League for Nursing 1994, 85-101 (single case study). Q

Newshan, G/ Schuller-Civitella D. Large clinical study shows value of therapeutic touch program, Holist Nurs Pract., 2003, 17(4), 189-92. RES?
Representing the largest published sample size of therapeutic touch (TT) outcomes to date, data from this continuous quality improvement (CQI) clinical study suggests that TT, when provided in the clinical setting, promotes comfort, calmness, and well-being among hospitalized patients. In addition, patients are highly satisfied with TT. The newly developed Patient Satisfaction Survey and TT Performance Improvement Tool provide an effective means by which to evaluate a TT program.

Nicholas, C. The effects of loving attention on plant growth, New England Journal of Parapsychology 1977, 1, 19-24. RES

Nodine, J.L. The effect of Therapeutic Touch on anxiety and well-being in third trimester pregnant women. Masters Abstracts International 1988, 26(1), 109. RES? Q?

Null, Gary, Healers or hustlers? Part IV, Self Help Update Spring 1981, p. 18. Mouse cancers. RES


Oehrtman, Sandra. The effects of therapeutic touch on pain responses in infants receiving immunizations, M.S.N. Dissertation, Medical College of Ohio, U.S. MAI 44/01, 315, Feb. 2006DISC
This study explored the use of therapeutic touch as a prophylactic intervention to minimize the pain experienced by infants receiving multiple immunization injections. The history, philosophy, and practice of the modality and its physiological effects on the body's energy field were discussed in a review of the literature. Seventeen infants, from a small rural immunization clinic, participated in the study. Each of the infants received multiple immunization injections, ranging from two to four injections, with the goal of preventing communicable diseases. One group of infants received therapeutic touch and one group, who served as the control, did not receive therapeutic touch. The treatment of therapeutic touch was provided by the researcher and observed by clinic nurses who were unaware of which group, either treatment or control, that the infants were assigned to. The infant's pain response was recorded utilizing the PAIN (pain Assessment in Neonates) scale. Scores were compared using t-tests. The results of the analysis were not significant, potentially due to numerous factors discussed under limitations of the study, although there was a statistical significance within the treatment group, when the pre- and post-treatment heart rates and oxygenation saturation levels were analyzed.

O’Laoire, Seán, An experimental study of the effects of distant, intercessory prayer on self-esteem, anxiety, and depression, Alternative Therapies 1997, 3(6), 38-53. RES

Olson, M/ Sneed, N. Anxiety and Therapeutic Touch. Issues in Mental Health Nursing 1995, 16, 97-108. RES

Olson, M/ Sneed, N/ Bonadonna, R/ Ratliff, J/ Dias, J.  Therapeutic Touch and post-Hurricane Hugo stress. Journal of Holistic Nursing 1992, 10(2), 120-136. RES
Olson, M/ Sneed, N/ LaVia, M/ Virella, G/ Bonadonna, R/ Michel, Y. Stress-induced immunosuppression and Therapeutic Touch. Alternative Therapies 1997, 3(2), 68-74. RES

Olson, Melodie/ Sneed, Nancee: Anxiety and Therapeutic Touch, Issues in Mental Health Nursing 1995, 16, 97-108. RES

O'Mathuna, D. P/ Ashford, R. L. Therapeutic touch for healing acute wounds. The Cochrane Library 2004, (Oxford) (4). RES

Onetto, Brenio & Elguin, Gita H. Psychokinesis in experimental tumorgenesis (Abstract of dissertation in psychology, University of Chile 1964), Journal of Parapsychology 1966, 30, 220. (Also in Spanish: Acta Psiquiatrica Y Psicologia America Latina 1968, 14, 47. RES

Osterlund, H/ Davids, D/ Gima, A/ Verderber, A. HeToBa study at the Queen’s Medical Center, Healing Touch Newsletter: Research Edition, 1998, 8(3), 16. Data-based). RES?

Osterlund, H/Suzuki, Susan. The HeToBa study: Healing Touch for backs phase I and 2. Q
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
This was a quality assurance (QA) study on the use of Healing Touch modalities on employees who sustained back injuries on the job at Queen's Medical Center, in Honolulu, Hawaii. "Project Support,” offered Healing Touch to employees with acute back injuries. The findings of this study provided the foundation for conduction of a research study in this population and helped to establish Healing Touch services in the outpatient setting. No significant differences were found in the Phase 2 study.

Osterlund, Hob. A patient satisfaction survey for cancer patients experiencing Healing Touch at the cancer wellness center. SURV
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
A total of 198 patients were interviewed. Of that group 35% had a prior knowledge of Healing Touch. The satisfaction with the most recent Healing Touch session was: 83.3% were very satisfied, 11.6% were satisfied, 3.5% were somewhat satisfied and 0.5% were not satisfied. The patients were also asked to rate their change in pain and relaxation levels after their most recent Healing Touch session. The average decrease in pain level (0-10 scale) was 2.8 and the average increase in relaxation level (1-4 scale) was 1.8.

Ostuni, E/ Pietro, MJ. Effects of Healing Touch on Nursing Home Residents in Later Stages of Alzheimer Disease, Paper presented at the 5th Healing Touch International 5th Annual Conference, Denver, CO. January, 2001, (Data based). RES
There are half a million people institutionalized for Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) in the US and uncounted others cared for privately. While those who may not have had contact with people who have Alzheimer’s might write them off as not needing care because they are not aware of their own conditions, this is a gross misperception. These people suffer from confusion, distress at being unable to care for themselves, fears, pains, and more. Palliative treatments that slow the progress of AD are available, though not very effective. Symptomatic treatments with drugs often diminish quality of life. CAM therapies are welcome because they relieve symptoms without side effects.
“In a pilot study… 10 Healing Touch treatments were administered by a Healing Touch practitioner over 5 weeks’ time (two treatments per week) to five residents of a local long term nursing facility whose primary diagnosis was Alzheimer’s Disease. During this time, and for one week prior, and one week after the treatments, members of the direct care staff rated resident behaviors on a 10-item Functional Behavior Profile twice weekly. The ratings ranged from “5” (best) to “1” (poorest). At the end of the seven weeks, each resident had deteriorated in at least one behavior (an average of 2.8 for the group), but each person had also improved in at least five behavioral areas with a group average of 6.2 behaviors, at a significance level of p=.020.
Twelve clients from the same long-term care facility with a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease were selected... They were divided into a treatment and control (non-treatment) group on the basis of staff reports of each client’s approximate stage of progress in the illness. Thus, each group had one “high-mid” client, one “mid” client, three “mid-late” clients and one “late” stage client.
The methodology include observations of 10 behaviors that were rated on a 5-point scale by members of the direct care staff: appetite, sleep, comfort (freedom from pain), orientation, compliance with daily routine, socialization, composure (emotional stability), non-verbal responses, freedom from jargon, and conversational communication. Data was collected on al 12 residents four times before treatments began, twice weekly during treatments, and again four times after treatments were discontinued.
Residents in the treatment group received two Healing Touch treatments per week for five weeks for a total of 10 treatments each. Treatments ranged from 10 to 20 minutes in length. Modalities were selected on the basis of the resident’s physical disposition (lying on bed, sitting in chair with tray, sleeping, walking, etc.), and upon the author’s perception of the resident’s treatment needs in that moment. These were typically, full body connection or an adaptation, chakra spread, magnetic unruffling or therapeutic touch as described in the Healing Touch notebooks…”
1. “Average improvement in the behavior scores across all 10 behavioral items for the treatment group across five weeks of treatment was significant at the p=.046 level. No improvement was seen in the average behavior scores of the control group. Decline in average behavior scores was noted, but was not significant.
2. Average behavior scores for the item “Composure” (freedom from agitation, extreme restlessness, catastrophic outbursts, bouts of uncontrolled weeping, etc.) improved significantly at the p=.024 level; the average scores of the control group did not change significantly.
3. Average behavior scores for the time “Physical Comfort” (freedom from complaints or non-verbal indications of pain) improved significantly for the treatment group at the p=.005 level; the average scores of the control group did not change significantly. 
HT may be a promising complementary treatment for late-stage bedridden residents with dementia for whom so little else can be done. Future research should focus on the effects of HT on residents with dementia and whether direct care staff do in fact, find these patients easier to care for. The effects of HT upon specific events of a resident’s daily routine e.g., easier transition into nursing home living, reduced need for extra medication for anxiety, prior to events that cause some residents to have extra resistance, such as bath time should be investigated. Finally, the effects of HT should be explored as a method for enriching the visits of family members with their loved ones who have dementia; as a way of involving volunteers in care of these residents; and as stress reducing treatments for staff

Ostuni, Elizabeth/ Santo Pietro, Mary Jo. The Effects of Healing Touch on Nursing Home Residents in Later Stages of Alzheimer Disease. Pilot Study. 
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
Healing Touch treatments were administered two times per week for five weeks to five residents of a long term nursing facility whose primary diagnosis was Alzheimer’s Disease. During this time, and for one week prior, and one week after the treatments, members of the direct care staff rated resident behaviors on a 10-item Functional Behavior Profile. The ratings ranged from “5” (best) to “1” (poorest). At the end of the seven weeks, each resident had deteriorated in at least one behavior (an average of 2.8 for the group), but each person had also significantly improved in at least five behavioral areas with a group average of 6.2 behaviors.

Ostuni, Elizabeth/ Santo Pietro, Mary Jo. The effects of Healing Touch on nursing home residents in later stages of Alzheimer Disease. RES
Healing Touch research summaries of Diane Wardell
Twelve clients from a long-term care facility with a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease were divided into a treatment and control group on the basis of staff reports of each client’s approximate stage of progress in the illness. Observations were made of 10 behaviors by members of the direct care staff: appetite, sleep, comfort (freedom from pain), orientation, compliance with daily routine, socialization, composure (emotional stability), non-verbal responses, freedom from jargon, and conversational communication. The results indicated significant improvement in the behavior scores across all 10 behavioral items for the treatment group compared to no improvement in the control group. Average behavior scores for the item “Composure” (freedom from agitation, extreme restlessness, catastrophic outbursts, bouts of uncontrolled weeping, etc.) and physical comfort also improved significantly.


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